A South African-led research team working on Australopithecus sediba, the 2-million-year-old human ancestor recently discovered in South Africa, have published new findings on what our early ancestors ate that are causing a stir in scientific circles.
It's clear that these hominins didn't brush their teeth on the morning nearly two-million years ago when they fell into a sinkhole not far from present-day Johannesburg. Remains of their meal have been found in plaque in their teeth.
The 1.9-million year old Australopithecus sediba, found in South Africa's Cradle of Humankind by professor Lee Berger of Wits University in 2008, reveal that these hominins ate parts of trees, shrubs or herbs.
Berger, Reader in Human Evolution and the Public Understanding of Science at the Institute for Human Evolution at Wits, led the team, comprising nine leading scientists from across the globe, that published the latest findings on Australopithecus sediba.
A (very) long-overdue trip to the dentist ...
While examining the teeth of the two individuals so far excavated, Berger noticed stains or plaque on the teeth - tartar or calculus, a mineralised material that forms on teeth.
"In this plaque, the scientists found phytoliths, bodies of silica from plants eaten almost two-million years ago by these early hominins," the research team said in a statement this week.
The well-preserved teeth were analysed in different ways. Dental micro-wear analyses of the tooth surfaces and high-resolution isotope studies of the tooth enamel were conducted.
"We have a very unusual type of preservation in this instance as the state of the teeth was pristine," said Peter Ungar, distinguished professor of anthropology at the University of Arkansas and the scientist responsible for conducting the dental micro-wear studies of the teeth.
Multi-disciplinary research team
The research was published in the online edition of the prestigious journal Nature on Wednesday, and will appear in the 5 July print edition.
The main author is Amanda Henry of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany, a specialist in dental calculus and tartar. Other specialists on the multi-disciplinary team included dental micro-wear specialists, isotopic specialists and phytolith researchers - scientists who study the physical remains of ancient plants. "We have been very lucky to bring together such a diverse group of talented individuals to conduct this study," said Henry.
Using the isotope analysis, the dental micro-wear analysis and the phytolith analysis, the researchers "closed in on the diet of these two individuals, and what they found differs from other early human ancestors from that period.
"The micro-wear on the teeth showed more pits and complexity than most other australopiths before it. The phytoliths gave an even clearer picture of what the animals were consuming, including bark, leaves, sedges, grasses, fruit and palm," the statement reads.
Animal that took advantage of forest resources
Tests were conducted on the surrounding sediments in the area, to ensure the samples from the plaque were really part of the diet, and not contamination from elsewhere.
"By testing the sediments in which the hominid was buried we can be sure that the phytoliths in the calculus were not from post-depositional contamination," said professor Marion Bamford from the Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontology at Wits, who worked on the phytolith analysis.
"These findings tell us a really nice story about these two individuals. We get a sense of an animal that looked like it was taking advantage of forest resources," adds Ungar.
"This kind of food consumption differs from what has been seen in evidence from other australopiths. They come out looking like giraffes in terms of their tooth chemistry. A lot of the other creatures there were not eating such forest resources."
The finding has been creating great excitement in the scientific world.
Bark ... not expected
"The find is unprecedented in the human record outside of fossils just a few thousand years old. It is the first truly direct evidence of what our early ancestors put in their mouths and chewed - what they ate," said Berger.
"I found the evidence for bark consumption the most surprising," said Berger. "While primatologists have known for years that primates, including apes, eat bark as a fallback food in times of need, I really had not thought of it as a dietary item on the menu of an early human ancestor."
Matt Sponheimer, a Professor at the University of Colorado, Boulder, who worked on the isotopic research, explains: "The results suggested a different diet than we have found in other early hominins, and were rather like what we find in living chimpanzees. We were not expecting Sediba to look unlike Australopithecus and Homo as various researchers have suggested affinities to one genus or the other, or both."
New hominin species
In 2010, Berger and his colleagues unveiled the 2008 find, an entirely new hominin species.
In September 2011, the almost complete hand skeleton of sediba was unveiled, together with the brain, hip, foot and ankle. Five papers detailing the findings and analysis of the discovery were published in the prestigious journal Science.
The very evolved hand with a long thumb, like a human, with long arms like an ape, indicate that sediba was bipedal but also able to climb. The hand also suggests that sediba was capable of tool manufacture and use. The advanced pelvis and long legs suggest it was able to stride and possibly even run like a human. Sediba has been described as a "transitional species" between Australopithecus africanus and either Homo habilis or Homo erectus.
Other animal fossils have been found with the sediba bones - sabre-toothed cats, hyenas, antelopes, mice, birds and snails.
Sediba is a Sotho word for a well or a spring; the species was so named because it was hoped that "a great source of information will spring from the fossils".
Source: City of Johannesburg