Zimbabwe: Anjin Saga - Lifting the Corporate Veil

AN intricate web of Chinese and Zimbabwean military networks control the country's biggest diamond mining company, Anjin Investments (Pvt) Ltd through front or nominee companies designed to camouflage the involvement of security forces, investigations by the Zimbabwe Independent have established.

While most cabinet ministers and others in government may not have been informed about the organisational and ownership structures of Anjin, investigations show the firm is controlled by the Chinese and Zimbabwean military establishments mining diamonds under disguise in Marange.

Anjin is a joint venture between a Chinese firm, the Anhui Foreign Economic Construction (Group) Co. Ltd, a large construction company, which sources say is connected to the military-industrial complex in China, and Matt Bronze Enterprises, whose company directors were people selling shelf companies.

While it was clear who Anhui, which had embarked on major construction projects in Africa, including military complexes in countries such as Ghana and Zimbabwe was, the biggest question has been, who is Matt Bronze and who are its directors and ultimate beneficiaries?

According to the latest Kimberley Process Certification (KPCS) Compliance Verification Report on Anjin conducted in November 2011, Matt Bronze was registered on December 24 2009. KPCS failed to nail down who Matt Bronze is.

However, investigations by the Independent show it is a front company for the military. Records at the Registrar of Companies show Matt Bronze was incorporated on April 24 2008 and is housed on the 9th floor, Travel Centre Corner, 3rd and Jason Moyo Avenue, Harare.

According to official records, Anjin is a 50-50 joint venture between Anhui and Matt Bronze.

A visit to the Registrar of Companies showed the directors of Matt Bronze listed as Shelton Wandai Kativhu and Pennelope Rujeko Kativhu. However, the beneficial owners of Matt Bronze are not known.

Investigations show Matt Bronze was formed by the Ministry of Defence/Zimbabwe Defence Forces and the Zimbabwe Mining Development Corporation through a vehicle called Glass Finish (Pvt) Ltd.

The military has 80% in Glass Finish, while ZMDC has 20%. Records also show Glass Finish's directors as Prudentius Kativhu and Tinashe Kunze. The link at the Registrar of Companies between Matt Bronze and Glass Finish is the address listed in the records.

When the Independent visited their offices at the Travel Centre, it discovered the 9th floor was occupied by the Zimbabwe Tourism Council, which sublets some of its offices.

Prudentius Kativhu, working with Kunze for a company called Prudent Financial Services, used to occupy one of the offices. Prudent Financial Services' core business was selling shelf companies but it has since vacated the premises and Kativhu is said to be now operating from home, while Kunze is at Pockets Building along Jason Moyo Avenue.

The Independent yesterday tracked down Kunze, who appeared to be in his 20s and looked nothing like an expected millionaire co-owner of one of Zimbabwe's biggest diamond mining companies, Anjin.

Kunze was shocked when asked about his connection to Anjin through Glass Finish and Matt Bronze but explained what actually happened for their names to end up listed as those of the company's directors.

"We sold those shelf companies in 2009 or 2010 to a Tarumbwa, who at that time bought a lot of shelf companies from us," he said. He said after that they did not know what happened although the shelf companies bore their names.

According to Global Witness, which monitors natural resource-related conflict and corruption, Brigadier-General Charles Tarumbwa holds a third of Anjin shares on behalf of the Ministry of Defence.

Anjin directors are listed as Chinese nationals Jiang Zhaoyao, who is the general manager, Chen Qing, Peng Zheng, Li Zhongiqi, Huang Xianjue and Tarumbwa, the only Zimbabwean director listed, as the company secretary and principal officer. Tarumbwa was in 2006 listed by the United Nations as a Judge Advocate General at the Ministry of Defence and was on the EU sanctions list.

An affidavit obtained by Global Witness shows the agreement to form a joint venture was signed by Tarumbwa for Matt Bronze and Peng Zheng on behalf Anhui.

The company register also states Anjin's share capital is US$2 000, made up of 2 000 ordinary shares of one US dollar each, shared equally between Tarumbwa and Zheng.

Kunze said: "Are you telling me that he didn't change the directors? I was actually shocked two weeks ago when I received a call from DHL telling me that they had a parcel for Matt Bronze, which I should collect. I told them it was no longer our company."

Information obtained also showed Anjin's Zimbabwean directors are drawn from the military and police. They include Ministry of Defence permanent secretary Martin Rushwaya, senior assistant police commissioner Oliver Chibage, Munyaradzi Machacha who used to work in Zanu PF's commissariat department, director of Marange Resources, Mabasa Temba Hawadii and assistant police commissioner Nonkosi Ncube.

Non-executive board members are retired army officer Morris Masunungure and retired colonel Romeo Mutsvunguma.

Anhui has done many projects across Africa, including army and police barracks in Ghana. In Zimbabwe, it is building a new National Defence College along Mazowe/Bindura highway. The deal is financed from a controversal US$98 million loan from the Chinese state-owned Eximbank.

A letter signed by the acting secretary for the Mines ministry, a V. Vera, to Anjin dated February 2, 2010 reads: "We are pleased to confirm that cession of part of Special Grant 4765 measuring 3 731 hectares from ZMDC to Anjin Investment giving exploration, prospecting and mining rights, has been approved by the secretary for the ministry of Mines."

The letter said Matt Bronze is the company which ZMDC used to cooperate and sign agreements with Anhui.

Matt Bronze contributed the special grant for mining as its investment, and the Chinese firm injected capital.

According to the KP report, Anhui claimed it had invested US$380 million as at November 5, 2011 in developing the mine and in relocating the villagers to Arda Transau estate.

Mines minister Obert Mpofu yesterday referred questions on Anjin's ownership to Defence minister Emmerson Mnangagwa."Talk to the owners of Anjin, talk to Mnangagwa," he said adding there was nothing wrong in the military's involvement in mining.

However, Anjin has denied it is partly owned by the Zimbabwean military and police."Anjin Investments has never been controlled by Zimbabwean military or police. It is Anhui and Matt Bronze that benefits from Anjin Investments," the company said. "As for how the government-related company Matt Bronze distributes its benefits, the Chinese side knows nothing at all."

However, evidence clearly shows it is owned by the Chinese and Zimbabwean security establishment.

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