With independence on 9 July 2011, the Republic of South Sudan became both the newest and the most oil-dependent country in the world.
South Sudan has been blessed with oil wealth that, if managed responsibly, could provide for the long-term development and prosperity its citizens deserve. There are encouraging signs that the South Sudanese government is committed to ensuring this outcome. Indeed, the country's emerging legal framework includes wide-ranging public reporting, contract allocation, and revenue management standards that draw from international best practice. However, implementation of these transparency and accountability measures will not be easy. It will require a concerted effort and prioritisation from across the government. It will also demand a genuine commitment to move beyond the legacy of closed-door oil sector management left by the country's former rulers in Khartoum.