Resolved to strengthen the United Nations central role in peacekeeping, the Security Council coalesced around a resolution - the first of its kind in 10 years - which recognized the importance of multidimensional peacekeeping and stressed that peacekeeping activities should be conducted in a manner that facilitated post-conflict peacebuilding, helped prevent a relapse into conflict and assisted progress towards sustainable peace and development.
The Council noted in its resolution 2086 (2012), adopted unanimously, that multidimensional peacekeeping - the focus of debate led by Pakistan's delegation, which is Council President this month - must ensure coherence between peacemaking, peacekeeping, peacebuilding and development in order to respond effectively to post-conflict situations from the outset.
It also highlighted that the approach brought comparative advantages in early peacebuilding, including by drawing strength from international legitimacy and political leverage derived from a Council mandate, and using a mix of civilian, police, and military capabilities under a unified leadership.
The resolution noted that such missions might be mandated to assist national security sector frameworks, support the strengthening of rule of law institutions in the host country, as well as peace consolidation and inclusive political processes, and, among others, protect civilians, particularly those under imminent threat of physical violence, while recognizing that that was the primary responsibility of the host country.
Also by its text, the Council reiterated its resolve to give the operations clear, credible and achievable mandates, matched by appropriate resources, and it recognized the need to strengthen the cooperation and consultations with troop- and police-contributing countries. It encouraged national Governments, the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations to broaden the pool of civilian capacities for peacebuilding in the immediate aftermath of conflict.
"We continue to press for progress in the face of challenges," said United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon as the meeting opened, asserting that for 65 years, peacekeeping had kept pace with the times. The operations today were more varied and more complex than ever, yet multidimensional peacekeeping was a highly cost-effective investment in lasting stability. No other international tool was as effective in combining political, security, rule of law and human rights efforts.
He said that today's resolution rightly emphasized that national Governments had the primary responsibility for identifying peacebuilding priorities - in consultation with a broad cross-section of society. Inclusivity and institution-building were critical to preventing a relapse into conflict, and peacekeeping missions played a vital role on both of those fronts.
The Foreign Secretary of Pakistan, Jalil Abbas Jilan, said blue helmets had saved and protected millions of lives, and had helped to rebuild shattered communities and neighbourhoods. "That multilateral exercise under the UN flag replaced strife with harmony," he said.
He said that the complex and dynamic nature of contemporary conflicts demanded change in the nature and scope of the missions, and multidimensional peacekeeping missions were a manifestation of that evolution. In such operations, keeping peace was as critical as building it, and achieving those twin goals called for a more calibrated response.
Incorporating the development component, said Togo's representative, one of nearly 60 speakers who took the floor, was making the blue helmets "artisans of peace and reconstruction", as they acted in various areas from security and rule of law to good governance, institution-building, justice reform and national capacity-building. The level of deployment of such missions with increasingly broad and complex mandates - currently at 14 - was unprecedented, he noted.
Several themes were common to the discussion, including, as India's speaker stated, that resource allocation had failed to keep pace with expanding mandates.
Peacekeeping missions were being asked to do more with less, and the shortages of personnel and equipment only added to the operational challenges, speakers said. The need to match resources with mandates was heard throughout the day, as delegations were reminded that United Nations peacekeeping made progress in key areas "affordable at a fraction of the cost" of similar endeavours elsewhere.
The point was also made that fluency in the language of local populations would smooth interaction between a mission and host country and, inevitably, pave the way to a mission's success. France's speaker said his delegation had asked the Secretariat to address that issue, but one year later, nothing had been done. He was not simply defending the French language, he explained, but stressing the need for the peace operations to be able to communicate with the host country populations.
Sharing the view that the contributions of blue helmets could not be overstated was the representative of the Russian Federation.
However, he said, it was especially dangerous when blue helmets compromised their neutrality and were drawn into internal political conflict, providing support to one of the parties. It was counterproductive and, in some cases, even dangerous, for individual States or the Secretariat to "interpret" Security Council mandates or international law in a way that used the concept of civilian protection to achieve political goals.
In closing remarks, the Permanent Representative of Pakistan noted a vital interest in the continued effectiveness and success of United Nations peacekeeping. He hoped today's debate and its outcome would go a long way towards promoting that common objective. The unanimous adoption of the resolution this morning on a multidimensional approach to peacekeeping, he noted, had been co-sponsored by all 15 Council members.
Also speaking was the Parliamentary Secretary for Defence of Australia and the Deputy Minister for Multilateral and Global Affairs of the Republic of Korea.
Statements were made as well by the representatives of the following Council members: United States; United Kingdom; Guatemala; China; Argentina; Rwanda; Morocco; Azerbaijan; and Luxembourg.
Also participating were the representatives of Egypt (on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement), New Zealand, Brazil, South Africa, Indonesia, Germany, Bangladesh, Japan, Chile, Slovakia, Fiji, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Malaysia, Cuba, Nepal, Ireland, Thailand, Ukraine, Sweden (on behalf of Nordic countries), Croatia, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Côte d'Ivoire, Uganda, Senegal, Tunisia, Armenia, El Salvador, Sri Lanka, Nigeria, Namibia, Chad, Zimbabwe, South Sudan, Montenegro, Turkey, and Benin.
Representatives of Pakistan and India took the floor again at the end of the meeting, which began at 10:07 a.m. and was adjourned at 4:49 p.m.
The full text of Security Council resolution 2086 (2013) reads as follows:
"The Security Council,
"Reaffirming its primary responsibility under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security and its readiness to strive for sustainable peace in all situations under its consideration,
"Reaffirming its commitment to uphold the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, including its commitment and respect to the principles of political independence, sovereign equality and territorial integrity of all States in conducting all peacekeeping and peacebuilding activities and the need for States to comply with their obligations under international law,
"Commending the critical role of United Nations peacekeeping operations in the maintenance of international peace and security, preventing and containing conflicts, promoting compliance with international norms and Security Council decisions and building peace in post-conflict situations,
"Resolving to strengthen the central role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and to ensure the effective functioning of the collective security system established by the Charter of the United Nations,
"Noting that peacekeeping ranges from traditional peacekeeping missions, which primarily monitor ceasefire, to complex multidimensional operations, which seek to undertake peacebuilding tasks and address root causes of conflict,
"Reaffirming that respect for the basic principles of peacekeeping, including consent of the parties, impartiality, and non-use of force, except in self-defence and defence of the mandate, is essential to the success of peacekeeping Operations,
"Reiterating the commitment to enhance the effectiveness of the United Nations in addressing conflict at all stages from prevention to settlement to post-conflict peacebuilding,
"Encouraging further progress on a comprehensive, coherent and integrated approach to the maintenance of international peace and security by preventing conflicts, preventing relapse and building sustainable peace through effective preventive diplomacy, peacemaking, peacekeeping and peacebuilding strategies,
"Recalling in this regard its commitment regularly to assess, in consultation with relevant stakeholders, the strength, mandate, and composition of peacekeeping operations with a view to making the necessary adjustments where appropriate, according to progress achieved or changing circumstances on the ground including in security, thereby allowing, on a case-by-case basis, reconfiguration, transition or withdrawal,
"Reaffirming the primary responsibility of national authorities in identifying their priorities and strategies for post-conflict peacebuilding, and in this regard, reiterating that national ownership, responsibility and political will as well as concerted efforts of national Governments, and the international community, are critical in building sustainable peace,
"Emphasizing the vital role of the United Nations, in consultations with international partners, to support national authorities in consolidating peace and in developing strategies for peacebuilding priorities as well as to ensure that these strategies strengthen coherence between political, security, human rights and rule of law activities,
"Reaffirming its commitment to address the impact of armed conflict on women and children, and recalling resolution 1325 (2000) and all subsequent resolutions on women, peace and security to reiterate the need for full, equal and effective participation of women at all stages of the peace process, given their vital role in the prevention and resolution of conflict and peacebuilding, as well resolution 1261 (1999) on children and armed conflict and subsequent resolutions,
"Paying tribute to the memory of United Nations peacekeepers who have lost their lives in the cause of peace, and in this regard, underscoring the importance of safety and security of United Nations peacekeepers, expressing grave concern about the security threats and targeted attacks against United Nations peacekeepers in many peacekeeping missions that constitute a major challenge to United Nations peacekeeping operations, condemning in the strongest terms killing of and all acts of violence against United Nations peacekeeping personnel, including the recent shooting down of a United Nations helicopter in South Sudan as well as recent casualties in United Nations missions in Democratic Republic of Congo, Côte d'Ivoire and Darfur, and emphasizing that perpetrators of such attacks must be brought to justice,
"1. Welcomes the contribution of peacekeeping operations to a comprehensive strategy for durable peace and security and, notes with appreciation the contributions that peacekeepers and peacekeeping missions make to early peacebuilding;
"2. Emphasizes that United Nations peacekeeping activities should be conducted in a manner so as to facilitate post-conflict peacebuilding, prevention of relapse of armed conflict and progress towards sustainable peace and development;
"3. Reiterates its commitment to continue to improve its consideration and reflection of early peacebuilding tasks in the mandates and composition of peacekeeping operations, and in this regard, stresses the necessity for the Secretariat to plan early peacebuilding tasks in phases with clear objectives, taking into account local conditions and lessons learned, which should contribute to long-term peacebuilding objectives, in order to allow successful transition and withdrawal of peacekeeping operations;
"4. Stresses the importance of grasping the challenges of peacebuilding from the inception of a peacekeeping mission through Integrated Strategic Assessment and Planning processes, so as to ensure coherence between, and integration of, peacemaking, peacekeeping, peacebuilding and development to achieve an effective response to post-conflict situation from the outset;
"5. Recognizes the important role of multidimensional peacekeeping missions to: (a) assist host countries in developing critical peacebuilding priorities and strategies; (b) help to create an enabling environment for relevant national and international actors to perform peacebuilding tasks; and (c) implement early peacebuilding tasks themselves;
"6. Reiterates the need to integrate mission expertise and experience into the development of peacebuilding strategies;
"7. Recognizes that the mandate of each peacekeeping mission is specific to the needs and situation of the country concerned;
"8. Notes, in this regard, that multidimensional peacekeeping missions may be mandated by the Security Council, inter-alia, to:
(a) Provide support to basic safety and security by assisting national security sector reform programmes, through strategic assistance to develop security sector frameworks, and capacity-building of military, police and other law enforcement institutions in key areas, while upholding the spirit of complete national ownership and true partnership, with a view to building a legitimate, accountable and sustainable security sector, responsive to the needs of the population;
(b) Enable national Governments in conceiving and developing the programmes of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR), which must follow a political process in an inclusive manner with a view to ensuring effective transition from disarmament and demobilization to reintegration, taking into consideration the different needs of all parts of the affected population, and in accordance with specific needs of a situation;
(c) Support the strengthening of rule of law institutions of the host country, in a coordinated manner with other United Nations entities, within the scope of respective mandates, in helping national authorities develop critical rule of law priorities and strategies to address the needs of police, judicial institutions and corrections system and critical interlinkages thereof, with a view to supporting the States' ability to provide critical functions in these fields, and as a vital contribution to building peace and ending impunity;
(d) Provide for rapid response in mine action as well as advisory services and training tailored to needs of national authorities, upon request, with a view to enabling risk reduction, victim assistance, demining and stockpile management and disposal;
(e) Support peace consolidation and inclusive political processes and through their good offices, advice and support, as well as by their ability to deter threats to the ongoing peace process, and facilitate consultation process among local population and civil society to help them contribute to national processes and discussions, and upon request, provide security, technical, logistic and administrative support to representative electoral processes, within the limitation of its capacities and resources;
(f) Help to establish the necessary security conditions to facilitate delivery of humanitarian assistance, taking into account the special needs of refugees, IDPs, women, children, elderly and disabled people, and to create conditions necessary for voluntary, safe, dignified and sustainable return of refugees and IDPs;
(g) Contribute towards agreed international efforts to protect human rights including through monitoring and prevention and support national Governments' efforts to promote and protect human rights, within its capacities and resources and according to its mandate throughout the life cycle of a mission;
(h) Protect civilians, particularly those under imminent threat of physical violence, in conformity with paragraph 16 of its resolution 1674 (2006), within missions' zones of operation and taking into account their capacities and resources, and support the efforts of the host authorities in protection of civilians from violence, including all forms of sexual and gender-based violence, and in this regard, help in building and reforming security sector institutions of the host country that are able to sustainably and consistently protect civilians, while recognizing that protection of civilians is the primary responsibility of the host country;
(i) Cooperate and coordinate with United Nations agencies and funds and programs, as well as all relevant partners including international financial institutions and donors, to support the host Government and relevant Government institutions in designing poverty reduction and economic development policies, plans and strategies, within the context of specific situations;
(j) Support the participation of women in conflict prevention, conflict resolution and peacebuilding, and also support the efforts of the host Government towards inclusion of women in decision-making roles in post-conflict governance institutions;
"9. Recognizes that, while primary responsibility for successful peacebuilding lies with Governments and relevant national actors, multidimensional peacekeeping missions bring comparative advantages in early peacebuilding by: (a) drawing strength from international legitimacy and political leverage derived from the Security Council mandate; (b) using a mix of civilian, police, and military capabilities under a unified leadership; and (c) utilizing deep field presence;
"10. Reiterates its resolve to give peacekeeping operations clear, credible and achievable mandates matched by appropriate resources;
"11. Underlines the importance of deploying peacekeepers with professional skills, training, experience, excellence and in adherence to the United Nations zero tolerance policy for misconduct, and in this regard, encourages troop- and police-contributing countries, in the spirit of partnership, to continue to contribute professional military and police personnel with the necessary skills and experience to implement multidimensional peacekeeping mandates, including appropriate language skills at relevant levels;
"12. Reiterates the importance, when establishing and renewing the mandates of United Nations missions, to include provisions on the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women in post-conflict situations and on children and armed conflict, including through the appointment of gender advisers, women protection advisers and experts and child protection advisers, as appropriate, and welcomes the call of Secretary-General for enhanced participation, representation and involvement of women in prevention and resolution of armed conflict and in peacebuilding as well as for a stronger commitment to address the challenges to such engagement of women at all levels;
"13. Encourages national Governments, the United Nations, regional and subregional organizations to continue to use existing civilian expertise and also to broaden and deepen the pool of civilian capacities for peacebuilding in the immediate aftermath of conflict, including from countries with relevant experience in post-conflict peacebuilding or democratic transition, giving particular attention to mobilizing capacities from developing countries and from women, and in this regard, stresses the imperative of mandating and deploying civilian capacities in compliance with relevant United Nations resolutions and rules and procedures, and with a view to minimizing duplication of efforts and ensuring consistency and complementarity;
"14. Underlines the importance of clarity on roles and responsibilities of United Nations peacekeeping operations, United Nations country teams and other relevant actors, including entities of the United Nations peacebuilding architecture and the United Nations agencies, funds and programmes for the delivery of prioritized support to a country, consistent with its specific peacebuilding needs and priorities, as outlined by national authorities, in order to ensure effective integration of effort;
"15. Stresses that integrated action on the ground by security and development actors requires coordination with national authorities in order to stabilize and improve the security situation and help in economic recovery, and underlines the importance of integrated efforts among all United Nations entities in the field to promote coherence in the United Nations' work in conflict and post-conflict situations;
"16. Encourages the Secretariat, in the context of integrated strategic assessment and integrated strategic framework, to provide the Security Council and troop- and police-contributing countries and other key stakeholders with an early assessment of peacebuilding challenges in peacekeeping missions, including assessment of capabilities, force and personnel generation and logistic resource requirements, in order to coordinate and prioritize peacekeeping and peacebuilding activities in missions' mandates;
"17. Recognizes the need to further strengthen the cooperation and consultations with troop- and police-contributing countries, including through triangular cooperation between the Security Council, the troop- and police-contributing countries and the Secretariat, in areas where military and police contingents undertake early peacebuilding tasks, and encourages active participation of all stakeholders in open and more frequent consultation processes with a view to improving the delivery of peacebuilding tasks in the field;
"18. Underlines the importance of partnership and cooperation with regional and subregional arrangements and organizations, in accordance with Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter, in supporting peacekeeping and peacebuilding activities as well as forging greater regional and national ownership;
"19. Recalls its resolution 1645 (2005) and expresses its continued willingness to make use of the advisory, advocacy and resource mobilization roles of the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) in peacebuilding activities, welcomes the progress it has achieved, and emphasizes the need for further harnessing these roles in advancing and supporting an integrated and coherent approach with respect to multidimensional peacekeeping mandates in countries on its agenda;
"20. Strongly condemns targeted attacks against United Nations peacekeeping personnel from any party to the conflict and in this regard, calls upon the Secretary-General to take all measures deemed necessary to strengthen United Nations field security arrangements and improve the safety and security of all military contingents, police officers, military observers and, especially, unarmed personnel;
"21. Requests the Secretary-General to consider the provisions of this resolution in relevant peacekeeping and peacebuilding reports;
"22. Decides to remain seized of the matter."
The Security Council met today to consider, in an open debate, "United Nations peacekeeping: A multidimensional approach".
Before opening the debate, JALIL ABBAS JILANI, Foreign Secretary of Pakistan, expressed his condolences to the victims and families of Algeria, as well as to other Governments and their nationals for the heinous terrorist acts, which had occurred in Algeria.
Statement by Secretary-General
United Nations Secretary-General BAN KI-MOON said that peacekeeping, 65 years in, had kept pace with the times. The operations today were more varied and more complex than ever. And whatever form it took, multidimensional peacekeeping remained a highly cost-effective investment in progress towards lasting stability. No other international tool was as effective in combining political, security, rule of law and human rights efforts. And United Nations missions were integrating their work with the development efforts of United Nations country teams.
"We continue to press for progress in the face of challenges," he said, noting that the Departments of Peacekeeping Operations and of Field Support were working to further improve the planning, managing and supporting of missions. He counted on all Member States to support that effort, and he called on them to contribute military and police personnel with the professional skills, training and integrity required to fully implement their mandates. He also called for the provision of the key military assets and enabling capabilities needed to operate in ever more challenging environments.
He said that when Member States showed the will to make the right contributions at the right time, it was possible to deploy more quickly and operate more effectively. With that, he repeated his appeal for more women to serve in the operations, adding his wish to usher in the day when the peacekeeping operations benefited from women's full participation, especially in leadership positions.
Periodic reviews of the missions would be conducted to ensure that they had the right mix of skills and capabilities to respond to evolving mandates and changing conditions on the ground, he continued. Work was under way to improve how efforts were integrated across the United Nations system to maximize the collective impact of the missions and country teams. The Department of Peacekeeping Operations and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) were coming together as the Joint Global Focal Point for police, justice and corrections.
Also being improved was the way transitions were carried out as drawdowns and ultimately conclusions of missions were conducted; that had recently occurred in Timor-Leste. "We aim to deploy, work hard, fulfil the mandates you entrust to us, and leave behind strong structures to maintain lasting peace." However, he added, more must be done than integrating the work of the United Nations system; also crucial was to coordinate with other international partners, and with regional organizations, the World Bank, bilateral donors and countries in the region, which played a key role.
He acknowledged that it was often far more difficult to ensure the coherence of that broader international support than to integrate United Nations work generally. But that coherence was critical, and he encouraged the Council to work harder for greater coherence across the international community, including with advice from the Peacebuilding Commission.
Today's resolution rightly emphasized that national Governments had the primary responsibility for identifying peacebuilding priorities - in consultation with a broad cross-section of society, he said. Inclusivity and institution-building were critical to preventing a relapse into conflict, and peacekeeping missions played a vital role on both of those fronts. They promoted national reconciliation, and the missions helped to support national institution-building, as was occurring in South Sudan, Liberia and Haiti.
Especially valuable lessons had been learned from Timor-Leste, he said, where political commitment from the Government and close collaboration between the United Nations and national police had been critical for success. In too many other cases, however, a lack of political will and sustained commitment to reform by national leaders had undermined progress. Too often, international donors focused on training individuals while neglecting to build institutions.
Institutions responsible for ensuring security and rule of law must be strengthened, or risk the gains made, he said. Host States were ultimately responsible for ensuring civilian protection, for which effective national institutions were essential. National counterparts must take that obligation seriously, as peacekeeping operations could never act as their surrogate in protecting the civilians within their borders. It was important to be honest and clear on that point: when national leaders and the international community allowed those problems, the local population suffered. Council members bore a heavy responsibility to prevent that, including by engaging directly with host Governments.
He said he was confident that "together we can build on more than two decades of success in multidimensional peacekeeping". He looked forward to the discussion on how to continue adapting that indispensable tool to better meet the needs of peoples suffering from the throes and aftermath of conflicts.
Mr. JILANI ( Pakistan), addressing the Council in his national capacity, said that blue helmets were recognized and respected all over the world. They symbolized the United Nations quest for regional and international peace, security and stability, and they underlined the collective will and endeavour of Member States to make the world peaceful and stable. United Nations peacekeeping had saved and protected millions of lives, and it had helped shattered communities and neighbourhoods to rebuild. Indeed, they replaced strife with harmony.
Brave women and men in the peacekeeping missions had made tremendous sacrifices; more than 3,000 peacekeepers had laid down their lives to save the world from the scourge of war. Today, everyone should reiterate their commitment to their safety and security.
Today's debate, he noted, would culminate in a comprehensive resolution on peacekeeping, the first such text after more than 11 years. It would emphasize, first, that peacekeeping missions were the most effective tool the United Nations had to deal with conflicts. Over the decades, those operations had evolved to multidimensional missions, in order to better correspond to the requirements of different situations. "Their growing capacity to build peace in addition to their primary role of keeping peace should be captured," he stressed, noting that in the past 52 years, his country had demonstrated strong commitment to that aim.
Highlighting several aspects of the multidimensional approach, he emphasized, among those, early response in order to prevent conflict, address its root causes, and "stem" its relapse. Also important was the nexus between peacekeeping and peacebuilding; early mission assessment and planning ensured coherence and synergy. Wider ownership of peacekeeping and peacebuilding by strengthened partnerships with national Governments, regional organizations and development actors was also crucial, as was inclusive political dialogue.
Pakistan was a proud participant in United Nations peacekeeping, and had been a leading military and police contributor to the missions from Latin America to Africa to Europe and Asia, he said. In more than five decades, it had contributed more than 144,711 troops, serving in 41 missions in 23 countries; 132 had given their lives. Pakistan was also host to one of the oldest United Nations peacekeeping missions - the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP).
He said that the complex and dynamic nature of contemporary conflicts demanded change in the nature and scope of the missions, and multidimensional peacekeeping missions were a manifestation of such an approach. Accordingly, intricate crises were increasingly seeing deployment of those missions. In such operations, keeping peace was as critical as building it.
In closing, he said that multidimensional missions achieved the twin goals of peacekeeping and peacebuilding by preventing recurrence of conflict, building local capacities for sustainable peace, and creating space for development actors and financial institutions. Those missions called for a more calibrated response. He underlined that shared responsibility and partnerships, which underpinned United Nations peacekeeping, was a "multilateral exercise under one UN flag". Continued success would be ensured by upholding the legitimacy bestowed on them by the Charter and the guiding principles of consent, impartiality, and non-use of force except in self-defence or defence of the mandate.
MIKE KELLY, Parliamentary Secretary for Defence of Australia, welcomed the evolution in the approach to peacekeeping over the last decade, which had seen recognition of the complex issues associated with such missions, and in turn, led to international efforts in providing the guidance, training and capabilities required to meet those challenges.
Today's resolution identified the broad range of military and civilian capabilities required for peacekeeping missions to achieve successful peacebuilding outcomes, as well as the need for integration of those efforts, including for organizations that were not formally part of a peacekeeping mission, but played a critical role in moving situations into stabilization and development.
He welcomed the Secretariat's work to enhance integrated mission planning and execution, with the establishment of integrated strategic frameworks and clarification of responsibilities, and designation of UNDP and the Department of Peacekeeping Operations as the joint global focal point for the rule of law. The resolution should provide those involved in mission planning with a list of various considerations, he said, noting that, while all missions had unique characteristics, generic aspects recurred in such areas as public security, management of displaced persons and transitional justice. The key would be tailoring responses to specific contexts.
Such activities must be guided by the principle of national ownership, he said, stressing: "We need to avoid situations in which a Government becomes reliant on a peacekeeping mission over the long term to do things it needs to be doing itself." Two areas central to peacekeeping and peacebuilding were civilian protection, and women, peace and security. The duty of peacekeepers to protect civilians was central to moving towards a healthy civil society.
Peacebuilding efforts that involved women were more likely to succeed, and peacekeepers could help foster such participation. Training and expertise must be provided, he said, underlining the need to identify, recruit and deploy people with the right skills. He welcomed the civilian capacities initiative in that regard, as well as ongoing efforts to implement peacekeeping training in a coordinated and complementary manner.
KIM BONG-HYUN, Deputy Minister for Multilateral and Global Affairs of the Republic of Korea, underlined his country's firm commitment to the strengthened structure of United Nations peacekeeping operations under the Secretary-General's initiative. Indeed, a framework that encompassed the changing realities of the conflict and post-conflict landscape was needed.
In formulating the integrated framework, various elements must be considered, including fragile post-conflict situations, potential relapses into conflict and the international development cooperation mechanism. While peacekeeping mandates in the traditional sense were valid, modern peacekeeping activities should overlap with those of peacebuilding and development cooperation.
In that context, he said an international development cooperation mechanism should be incorporated into peacekeeping operations. Development cooperation strategies for fragile States - which the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) was applying to several States - could be applied during mission planning.
He encouraged the Department of Peacekeeping Operations to work closely with development actors in drafting such plans. In addition, the resources of a country team and civilian sector should be taken into account before laying out mission mandates, in order to determine a mission's scope and capacities required. The available expertise of regional and subregional organizations should also be taken into account. The aim was to balance long-term goals with short-term realities on the ground, harmonizing the two where possible.
Continuing, he said the importance of national ownership could not be overemphasized in sustaining peace, security and development. Further, it was not practical to apply the same strategies to all missions. Tailored, strategic assessments were crucial in configuring any peacekeeping mission, while mandates should be clear and feasible.
The protection of civilians - especially women and children - must be taken into account in the early phase of mandate drafting and throughout the mission's cycle. Women also must be active participants in all stages of peacebuilding, peace agreements and development programmes, including in decision-making roles. He closed by saying that his country had participated in 19 missions to date, adding that it would dispatch an engineering unit to the United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS) in March.
JEFFREY DELAURENTIS ( United States) said that his Government was grateful for Pakistan's contributions to United Nations peacekeeping, which was one of the Organization's most important duties. Peacekeeping had helped many countries transition from war to peace, thanks in no small part to the assistance they had been provided by such missions. Yet, since the establishment of the first operation in the Congo some 50 years ago, peacekeeping must continue to evolve in order to be effective in the twenty-first century.
He called in that regard for bolstering the diverse character of United Nations peacekeeping missions, through, among other ways, ensuring the Security Council's early involvement on force generation activities.
In addition, staffing issues must be a priority and the United Nations must ensure that mission staff could provide skills and needs that host countries did not possess. Improved staffing also meant accelerating gender balance and the broader inclusion of women in mission duties and leadership across the spectrum of peacekeeping activities.
He went on to say that more military and police personnel needed to have more and better training before arriving in theatre. Also, mission leadership should make cooperation a priority in all operations, especially as they were becoming more complex. Mission management should design orientation strategies that focused on key responsibilities, such as civilian protection. Missions and country teams must work hand in hand, including in the design of quick impact projects and other initiatives aimed at generating local goodwill.
He said the United States would also like to see the entire peacekeeping architecture adhere to the "zero tolerance" policy for misconduct. It would also urge the full realization of the global field support strategy towards efficient use of resources and maintaining a relatively light mission footprint.
He said that peacekeeping could only work if there was a genuine peace to support. As such, the Council must do its part to ensure that the missions adhered to their respective mandates. Political actors on the ground should also support that work. He urged those leaders on the ground to interact openly and plainly with the Council, so that it could be effectively apprised of changing on the ground situations.
MARK LYALL GRANT ( United Kingdom) said that increasingly complex mandates demanded more from peacekeepers, who, themselves, could be early peacebuilders. However, effectiveness required clarity from the Council, as well as training, commitment and support overall. Peacebuilding helped Governments to articulate their objectives, such as had occurred in Liberia, where that process had gone hand in hand with elaboration of a national development strategy.
Peacekeepers provided greater security to enable the work of the wider peacebuilding community, such as had occurred in South Sudan. Peacekeepers also implemented peacebuilding tasks, such as had occurred in Côte d'Ivoire, where they had demonstrated that the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration must be a joint effort. Peacekeepers' efforts, however, were made vulnerable by lack of political will and a deficit in civilian expertise, he said, pointing to some recent examples.
He said that the so-called "New Deal" was a commitment by the international community to support peacebuilding in a coordinated and transparent manner, but also in the context of a firm political commitment by the relevant States to achieve sustainable development and peace. Since 2009, the Secretary-General had identified the need for the United Nations to broaden and deepen the pool of civilian expertise, drawing on the capacities of the global South. However, 20 per cent of civilian rule-of-law posts in missions remained vacant.
There had been some progress, he said, highlighting the advent of women protection advisers. As conditions changed on the ground, missions would cede their comparative advantage to other actors. Thus, an integrated response was important as missions drew down, as was a well-coordinated United Nations system that planned for that process from the outset. He commended today's draft, the first of its kind in more than 10 years, and said he had been pleased to have co-sponsored it.
GERT ROSENTHAL ( Guatemala) said his country had benefitted from United Nations peacekeeping after the signing of its 1996 peace accords, and it had since become a troop-contributing country to various operations. Guatemala had seen peacekeeping operations adapt to changing and unique challenges, which had required multidimensional mandates.
Indeed, peacekeeping operations in come cases must be complemented with activities that contributed to improved living conditions for the affected populations. Such multidimensional operations must have clear mandates that could be adapted to a given situation. Thus, the Council must take into account all tools at its disposal in the creation and review of mandates.
In addition, the Council must address the gaps in capabilities, resources and training through more coordination with the Secretariat and troop-contributing countries, he stressed. Any periodic evaluation of an operation must be shared with troop contributors, whose inputs must be recognized and encouraged.
Triangular cooperation also must be improved in the decision-making on and implementation of mandates, by consulting in all stages of peacekeeping operations, and especially in adjusting mandates. "Peacekeeping operations should not be understood as an outsourcing exercise", he said, with the developed countries employing the troops of developing countries to carry out the difficult and dangerous task based on an estimate of cost per person.
That was offensive to troop contributors. For his country, peacekeeping operations represented the fulfilment of an ideal: to peace and security. The Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations was the only forum mandated to review the entire question of the maintenance of peace. As such, the Council must not fall into an exercise of micromanaging specific aspects of those operations.
KODJO MENAN ( Togo) said maintaining the ability for rapid and sustainable solutions to crises and conflicts remained a major challenge for the United Nations. Peacekeeping missions were initially designed to maintain peace, but they had gradually evolved and adapted to the present environment.
Those missions, in their multidimensional design, now relied on a normative framework, which brought together the provisions of the United Nations Charter and international legal instruments on human rights, as well as the norms of regional and subregional organizations.
The issue was not only to maintain peace, but to build it. Bringing in the development component was making the blue helmets "artisans of peace and reconstruction", as they acted in various areas from security and rule of law to good governance, institution-building, justice reform and national capacity-building.
He said that the multidimensional approach was a demonstration of United Nations' will, not only to achieving security, but also to attaining sustainable political and human rights conditions. Peacekeeping missions were responsible for an array of activities in countries emerging from conflict, but resources were sorely lacking, especially given the need to build institutions, and resume political and economic activities, which were the foundation of any State.
No one model for peacebuilding fit all, so missions must take into account the specific needs of a country through ongoing consultation with the national authorities. Success required the integrated preparation of missions, establishment of strategic frameworks and mechanisms for setting priorities and coordinating their fulfilment. Finally, mission coherence should be regularly assessed.
LI BAODONG (China) said peacekeeping operations were an important tool for the United Nations in carrying out its efforts to manage and maintain international peace and security. Mandates were becoming more and more diversified, and the Council was creating some operations that were charged with early stage peacebuilding.
Overall, while that effort had experienced "ups and downs" and even a regression in some instances, the correlation between peacekeeping and peacebuilding was important. When formulating mandates, priority must be given to the urgent need of consolidating and maintaining peace.
At the same time, he continued, it was necessary to consider the current situation on the ground while keeping an eye on long-term issues. The inclusion of peacebuilding functions in some peacekeeping mandates must be accompanied by the provision of the necessary human and financial resources.
Missions must also follow the principle of respect for the sovereignty and wishes of host countries and ensuring that activities were aligned with host country needs. Peacebuilding was a long-term arduous task and could not be achieved by peacekeeping operations alone. As such, the Council, the Peacebuilding Commission and the Secretariat must enhance their relevant interaction. The United Nations should also mobilize the capacities of such important actors as the World Bank and other international stakeholders in the overall effort to strengthen peacebuilding activities.
GÉRARD ARAUD ( France) said the level of peacekeeping deployment was unprecedented, as 14 missions were under way with increasingly broad and complex mandates. Those required greater cooperation with State and regional organizations, as well as improved synergy with peacebuilding stakeholders.
France was profoundly committed to strengthening operations, and was presently participating in seven. Also, the country actively supported participating African States through its regional training and vocational schools. Since 2009, France and the United Kingdom had advocated for stronger cooperation between the Security Council with troop- and police-contributing countries, as well as for better management of the operations.
He said that several recommendations from the Brahimi report were still valid, but additional elements were now in play. Those included implementation of transition strategies, protection of civilians, and multilingualism. It was crucial to draw up exit strategies. After all, peacekeeping operations were not designed to last forever.
Work was also needed to close the gap between peacekeeping and peacebuilding, requiring better coordination and cooperation with United Nations agencies and country teams to avoid duplication. It was also critical to address the trafficking in drugs and human beings, and organized crime and corruption, all of which threatened stability.
Peacekeepers must be trained to be scrupulous in their behaviour, and a safe environment must be provided for them. Women were the linchpin of society's transformation and, thus, their participation at all levels should be encouraged. Touching on other points, he commended the Secretariat's policy aimed at excluding non-essential contractors with individuals suspected of war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide.
As for multilingualism in peace operations, he noted that his delegation had asked the Secretariat to fix that problem, but one year later, nothing had been done. He was not simply defending the French language, but stressing the need for United Nations peacekeeping operations to communicate with the populations to which they were assigned. Peacekeeping operations were the result of shared efforts by Member States, the Council, contributing countries and the Secretariat, but that meant nothing without the solid commitment of the host country.
MARÍA CRISTINA PERCEVAL (Argentina) said that her Government currently had its nationals participating in some seven peacekeeping operations. In that effort, it was participating in the important work of the Organization in maintaining international peace and security.
Argentina also acknowledged the close ties between peacekeeping operations, especially multidimensional ones, and the promotion of democracy and protection of human rights in the respective countries. As for the draft before the Council, she said the text urged the Secretary-General to consider the difference between traditional peacekeeping missions and the mandates of more recently deployed operations that were often tasked with monitoring preparations for elections, promoting the rule of law, bolstering civilian protection, and expanding gender equality, among other social issues.
Mandates of new, multidimensional missions also could include reference to support respective Governments and national-level civil rights groups. Those missions could also be charged with assisting Governments in the investigation of violations of human rights, she said, also recalling the importance of cooperation between the United Nations and the International Criminal Court. She welcomed the fact that the current resolution paid particular attention to addressing the issue of women in armed conflict and to ensuring broader participation of women in all phases of peacebuilding.
Enhancing the involvement and participation of women could lead to better results. Finally, she stressed that United Nations missions were not imposing solutions, but working in line with Government-identified priorities towards tangible improvements in the lives of people on the ground.
As peacekeeping missions were now the most visible face of the Organization, Member States and the Secretariat had the duty to enhance staff training, especially concerning human rights and humanitarian matters, to ensure that such personnel could continue to effectively carry out their important duties.
VITALY I. CHURKIN (Russian Federation) said that peacekeeping faced tremendous challenges, as destabilization in one country threatened to spill over to another. Many missions were deployed in situations where international political crises were far from resolved, requiring them to assume responsibility just after the "hot phase of conflict". Reacting to the changed circumstances, Council mandates should be "realistic and realizable".
Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, as well as mine clearance, were of key importance, as was the need to restore rule of law in post-conflict countries. The contributions of blue helmets in dealing with those challenges could not be overstated; they were first on the spot and their presence, knowledge and experience were important components to normalizing the situation.
In drawing down the operations, conditions must be conducive for long-term stability. At all times, the peace operations must observe the principles of sovereignty and territorial integrity of States. Also, they must recognize the national responsibility for peacebuilding, as they could not fully take on those objectives in the long term.
As each peacekeeping operation was unique, he said, its mandate should be in line with the specific situation. It was counterproductive and, in some cases, even dangerous, for individual States or the Secretariat to "interpret" Security Council mandates. As important as civilian protection was, it must "not put aside" other important aspects of the mandates. He was also concerned with arbitrary interpretations of international law for civilian protection.
It was unacceptable, for example, to use that to achieve political goals, especially as a pretext to interfere with the internal affairs of sovereign States. Peacekeeping operations had unique legitimacy, so it was especially dangerous when blue helmets compromised their neutrality and were drawn into internal political conflict, providing support to one of the parties. Also, their absolute safety was a prerequisite for their work, and recent incidents in South Sudan were tragic reminders of the responsibility of host countries to ensure that. He was not pleased with the slow pace of the investigation of the most recent incident. Finally, peace operations must be provided appropriate resources and staff.
OLIVIER NDUHUNGIREHE (Rwanda) said Rwanda's commitment to international peace and security was shaped by the world's failure to intervene in the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi.
Rwanda started participating in peacekeeping in 2004 in Darfur with the African Union Mission in Sudan, and today, it was the sixth major troop- and police-contributing country in the United Nations. Peacekeeping and peacebuilding were two sides of the same coin; the nexus between the two should be continually enhanced. Today's resolution reiterated that interdependence and encouraged progress on a coherent approach to addressing all stages of conflict.
"It is time to give peacebuilding a legitimate place in both the budgets and the mandates of peacekeeping operations," he said. Now more than ever, the first boots on the ground must be able to perform early peacebuilding tasks, as well as maintain a ceasefire and protect civilians.
A training mechanism in post-conflict community development would help peacekeepers and local populations alike. The United Nations' comparative advantages could be further optimized by enlisting troop- and police-contributing countries with expertise relevant to a particular mission. Also, it was crucial that the United Nations' partnerships with regional and subregional organizations be enhanced and strategically coordinated. In sum, planning processes should consider early peacebuilding tasks, while training and partnerships with all stakeholders could help pave the road to sustainable peace.
MOHAMMED LOULICHKI (Morocco) said that the Organization's peacekeeping activities had evolved over the years and now included addressing security-related challenges, as well as those associated with building and maintaining peace. Multifaceted peace operations required interaction and cooperation among all stakeholders contributing to ensuring peace, security and sustainable development in the aftermath of conflict.
Indeed, ensuring security through the early mobilization of capacities to carry out such activities as disarmament, demobilization and reintegration was key. At the same time, stakeholders must closely examine local and regional factors to indentify ways to strengthen interaction among all mechanisms, avoid duplication and build capacities.
All strategies must continue to follow the fundamental principles that made United Nations peacekeeping what it was, including respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity and respect for national priorities. He went on to stress the importance of national ownership and said that it was up to the respective Government to guide on-the-ground efforts.
On other issues, he said that interaction with local populations was obviously at the heart of the success of all peacekeeping and peacebuilding operations. As such, he joined with the representative of France in urging greater efforts to ensure that mission personnel were not only comprehensively trained, but also could effectively communicate in the language of the host country.
TOFIG F. MUSAYEV ( Azerbaijan) said peacekeeping had evolved from its traditional role of monitoring ceasefires to a more complex, multidimensional institution. Coherence among peacekeeping, peacebuilding and development was important. By preventing violence, enabling critical tasks and assisting host countries in developing post-conflict reconstruction strategies, multidimensional peacekeeping operations establish the foundations for peacebuilding processes. The task of assigning peacekeeping and peacebuilding functions lay with the Security Council. Mandates must be clear, realistic and achievable, while operations must be fully equipped with all operational and logistical capabilities.
He went on to say that the principles of consent of the parties, impartiality and non-use of force except in self-defence and defence of the mandate must always be observed. Further, countries emerging from conflict bore the primary duty of identifying their needs and developing post-conflict development agendas. More cooperation and regular consultations with troop and police contributors should be ensured.
Most importantly, any peacekeeping mandate must explicitly uphold the principles of political independence, sovereign equality, territorial integrity and non-intervention in domestic matters. In situations of large-scale ethnic expulsions and creation of ethnically homogenous areas, it was important that peacekeepers create the conditions for, and serve as guarantors of the full, safe and dignified return of refugees and internally displaced persons to their places of origin.
SYLVIE LUCAS (Luxembourg) said peacekeeping operations were at the heart of the Organization's activities. Security, development and the rule of law were interrelated, and as such, the mandates of most peacekeeping operations were now multidimensional, and personnel were tasked with duties that transcended traditional peacekeeping activities.
"The soldiers of peacekeeping are now called upon to be consolidators of peace," she said, stressing that the Security Council must be sure that operation mandates were clear, credible and without ambiguity. That would ensure that the roles of all stakeholders were adequately defined so that capacities could be optimized.
To that end, she added that the Council could also do more to include on mission details personnel from countries that had experienced similar situations to those of the country of concern.
She noted that the resolution before the Council noted the important role being played by women in peacebuilding, as well as the role played by special advisers. Finally, she hailed the work of all men and women working in United Nations peacekeeping operations and paid tribute to those that had lost their lives in the service of the Organization.
Following that statement, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2086 (2013).
MOOTAZ AHMADEIN KHALIL (Egypt), speaking on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement, said that peacekeeping operations today ranged from carrying out such traditional activities as monitoring the cessation of hostilities to, among others, conducting peacebuilding tasks and addressing root causes of conflict. "Throughout the years, peacekeepers have truly become early peacebuilders," he said, adding that in such a context, it was imperative to ensure that peacekeeping and peacebuilding were mutually reinforcing in the pursuit of lasting peace and stability.
That could only happen through supporting the crucial transition phase of peacebuilding that followed immediate post-conflict peacekeeping, ahead of long-term recovery. Such recovery should aim to ensure achievement of sustainable socio-economic development, to avoid a relapse into conflict.
He said that in recent years, the Organization had made strides towards incorporating peacebuilding tasks into the mandates of multidimensional peacekeeping operations. Those operations had in turn made a significant contribution to, among others, political processes, restoration of Government functions and the revitalization of national economies. Such tasks should be aligned with host country strategies to ensure national ownership.
The Non-Aligned Movement believed that, while peacekeeping was an important tool at the Organization's disposal, it should not be a substitute to other activities such as preventive diplomacy and political efforts to resolve conflict, particularly at the early stages.
"Peacekeeping should be resorted to after a thorough assessment of a conflict situation based on accurate information and with clear understanding of the objectives of peacekeeping operations," he said, also stressing that establishing any peacekeeping operation - or extending any existing mandate - must strictly observe the principles of consent of the parties and respect for State sovereignty.
He also said that cooperation between the Council and troop-contributing countries was indispensible to the success of peacekeeping operations, and those nations putting their troops at risk must play a role in policy formulation and decision-making regarding the strength, mandate and composition of relevant operations.
JIM MCLAY (New Zealand) reiterated his delegation's firm belief that peacebuilding activities were vital during the peacekeeping phase, and also stressed that enabling the drawdown of costly peacekeeping missions required "real and effective" efforts to address the root causes of conflict through a multidimensional approach by the Security Council and the wider United Nations.
Tasks such as security sector reform, extending the rule of law, establishing inclusive governance and creating early impact employment and economic opportunities' must all be part of the overall United Nations mandate. "But to be effective, they must be well integrated," he continued, explaining that without sound integration "we will continue to see the dreadful UN silo problems which have, in the past, sometimes rendered peacekeeping ineffective". The multidimensional aspects of relevant peacekeeping missions must, therefore, be given the same prominence as was usually accorded to military matters.
He went on to say that peacekeeping missions must be seen to deliver early and tangible benefits to host populations, thus helping build an operation's political capital with its host Government and other stakeholders. As for the overall efforts of the Council to ensure a multidimensional approach, he cautioned that the 15-nation body's mandate under the Charter was not unlimited, and that its current practice was not well suited to complex situations where there were overlapping competencies and responsibilities.
In that regard, key stakeholders outside the Council were often marginalized, "so we need to go much deeper in our search for effective tools for proper oversight of effective integration". He suggested that the Council could begin by establishing a "peacebuilding configuration" procedure of its own, based on partnership between it, the host country and relevant United Nations agencies, such as UNDP. A less formal mechanism of that nature would be a powerful tool for better, collective United Nations engagement on the multifaceted issues that faced almost every operation.
REGINA MARIA CORDEIRO DUNLOP ( Brazil) said her country had long stressed the need for the Council to look into the root causes of conflicts. One way to do that was to incorporate - from the beginning - key peacebuilding objectives into mandates and ensure that those priorities were reflected in mission planning and force generation.
She hoped today's resolution would help integrate all relevant bodies and stakeholders in that endeavour, and welcomed encouragement for the Council to benefit from the Peacebuilding Commission's advisory role. Among other things, strengthening the civilian component of missions was essential, as was providing them with adequate resources and ensuring that mandates were consistent with realities on the ground. Prevention efforts and exit strategies were also crucial.
CEDRICK CROWLEY (South Africa) said peacekeepers were mainly deployed to situations of intra-State conflict, requiring the deployment of civilian components. The multidimensional approach to peacekeeping had been effective in addressing modern conflict situations, with 10 of the current 14 missions configured in that manner bearing testimony in that regard. Mandates must be realistic, well resourced and able to meet host country needs. Peacekeepers were the entry point for peacebuilding, after which other stakeholders built a peacebuilding architecture.
National ownership of such work was paramount. Peacekeepers also provided assistance in the aftermath of conflict. Thus, joint consultations with the host Government during the security phases were critical in determining the transition to peacebuilding. In that respect, Liberia and Timor-Leste had both demonstrated the value of strong national ownership and leadership in the formulation of peacebuilding priorities. For multidimensional peacekeeping to be truly effective, mandate reviews must be informed by periodic and focused reviews contained in the Secretary-General's report.
DESRA PERCAYA ( Indonesia) said that, as a unique global partnership, United Nations peacekeeping remained a tremendously potent and cost-effective tool in saving mankind from instability and conflict. Maximizing such outcomes required the various components of those operations - military, police and civilian - to work closely together, united in a sense of common purpose. At the same time, with the ever present possibility of overlap, the United Nations and its partners must always be ready with responsive, comprehensive and adequately supported strategies that fostered both immediate and long-term peace, guided by local priorities.
He said that, while peacekeeping operations were deployed to support implementation of ceasefire agreements, their activities often, inevitably, included a role in peacemaking and peacebuilding. To that end, Indonesia commended the Council's increased focus on the nexus between peacekeeping and peacebuilding over the past two years and supported the body's commitment to such measures as national civilian capacity development and institution-building.
He said that, while peacekeepers undertook many important peacebuilding tasks, the Organization must also find ways to draw on and bolster specialized civilian capacities in support of a multidimensional approach. The United Nations civilian capacity review, as well as the work in the area being carried out by the Peacebuilding Commission, could provide helpful ideas in that regard.
He stressed that other United Nations entities were conducting useful programmes on development and peacebuilding and those needed to be promoted in an integrated and complementary approach. Indonesia, to that end, strongly supported the call made last year by the Special Committee on Peacekeeping on ensuing coherence among activities in the areas of peacemaking, peacekeeping, peacebuilding and development.
THOMAS MAYR-HARTING, Head of the Delegation of the European Union, said European Member States made important contributions to United Nations peacekeeping and had a great interest in making it even more efficient. His delegation was pleased to have provided support for the rapid setting up of the United Nations Supervision Mission in Syria (UNSMIS) and stood ready to act in similar ways in the future.
It also had a keen interest in ensuring that the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations continued to provide relevant guidance based on consensus, urging that its report be more focused and that its recommendations implemented in a timely manner.
Peacekeepers were peacebuilders who must seize opportunity in the immediate aftermath of conflict, he said. The European Union welcomed the Department of Peacekeeping Operations and Department of Field Support's strategy on the nexus between peacekeeping and peacebuilding and encouraged its further development, as well as carrying out effective training to enhance its implementation.
Recent reports and initiatives pointed to the same direction: the key to ensuring sustainable development was to start as early as possible and in as comprehensive a manner as needed. A coordinated strategic assessment for post-conflict peacebuilding was a crucial starting point and action from a range of stakeholders was required.
He went on to say that peacekeeping operations must be planned and conducted in a way that facilitated peacebuilding and sustainable peace. Operations with multidimensional mandates should incorporate a peacebuilding perspective, whose implementation required coordination among peacekeepers, country teams and development actors.
An integrated approach to early peacebuilding was successful when each actor was clear on their contribution and there was still a need to identify competencies in that regard. Efforts to enhance coordination must continue, while partnership opportunities that supported peacekeeping operations in peacebuilding tasks also must be explored. It was also important to optimize the way missions contributed to early peacebuilding and State-building.
HARDEEP SINGH PURI ( India) said that the nature of mandates would continue to shape the practice. He favoured tiered and inclusive "mandate-making" and in-depth consultations with the troop- and police-contributing countries. A fair assessment of mandates with corresponding resources would inject a sense of realism into expectations.
Unfortunately, resource allocation had failed to keep pace with mandate expansions. Peacekeeping missions were asked to do more with less, and those shortages of personnel and equipment had added to operational challenges and overstretch. UNMOGIP's role had been overtaken by the 1972 Simla Agreement between India and Pakistan, and he wondered whether those resources would be better utilized elsewhere.
United Nations peacekeeping made security sector reform, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, rule of law, governance, institution-building and support to democratic processes "affordable at a fraction of the cost" of similar endeavours elsewhere, he said. Functional necessities should guide development of programmatic contents and budgetary outlines. Also crucial were triangular cooperation and maintaining peacekeeping's "representative character".
PETER WITTIG (Germany) drew attention to Germany's initiative to establish a "Group of Friends for UN Police", saying that sustainable peace could only be achieved through justice and security, and the re-establishment of the rule of law. Germany's initiative aimed at fostering political support for the United Nations Police through strengthening their capacity and impact. The Group should include all main stakeholders involved in police missions and facilitate the informal exchange of ideas.
It would create a sense of common purpose and provide a bridge between United Nations Headquarters and capitals. The idea had been introduced in October 2012 and was envisioned as a complement to the existing Strategic Police Advisory Group. He expected the Group to consist of States interested in developing police peacekeeping, as well as partners from the Secretariat.
ABULKALAM ABDUL MOMEN (Bangladesh) said that, despite the significant achievements in peacekeeping, as a recent report by the Rand Corporation stated, the United Nations showed continued weaknesses by keeping peacekeeping operations undermanned and underfunded in comparison to actual need.
That not only challenged the achievement of mandates, but threatened the safety and security of peacekeepers. Mandates should be clear, specific and achievable, and adequate resources should be provided. Peacekeepers laid the foundation for peacebuilding and it was imperative they had adequate support.
In the context of multidimensional peacekeeping, peacebuilding elements could be incorporated at the early stages, he said. Once requirements were determined, troop contributors could be requested to form a deployment unit, which included military, police and civilian personnel.
Further, he underlined that women deserved equal rights to the peace process, urging their systematic inclusion throughout the process of conflict resolution, mediation and economic recovery. Training for peacekeepers should be customized to address all such needs and his Government offered its Bangladesh Institute of Peace Support Operations Training in that regard.
TSUNEO NISHIDA (Japan) said that in its 20 years of contributing to peacekeeping, Japan had early on taken on peacebuilding roles, recalling that in Timor-Leste, it had delivered engineering, police capacity-building and electoral support. In Haiti, Japanese Self-Defence Forces engineers contributed to national recovery efforts, while in South Sudan, Japanese engineering units were supporting nation-building efforts.
At the same time, peacekeeping missions had evolved, but had struggled to address emerging challenges. Missions were now required to meet specific needs and handle complex situations in order to deliver their multidimensional functions. More than ever, each mission should be launched and operated based on broader support from Member States.
He went on to point out that the Council had not made any substantial changes to its composition or decision-making processes for more than six decades. Also, Japan had engaged in the Peacebuilding Commission discussion on the nexus among peacekeeping, peacebuilding and development.
As the Chair of the Working Group on Lessons Learned, Japan organized a meeting in December to clarify the Commission's role vis-à-vis the Council while the mission in a country was undergoing a transition. Enhanced cooperation among the Council, Commission and development actors was essential, and Japan was committed to promoting such interaction. In closing, he expressed appreciation to all peacekeepers for their work, and deepest condolences to those who had made the ultimate sacrifice in the line of duty.
OCTAVIO ERRÁZURIZ (Chile) said peacekeeping operations were now deployed in increasingly complex situations, requiring civilian, political and rule of law elements. Whatever their nature, such operations must be guided by consent of the parties and other key principles set out in the United Nations Charter. Such operations must have clear priorities and must be staffed by personnel that were effectively trained to carry out multifaceted tasks and duties.
He called for systematic cooperation and coordination of all stakeholders, including the Council, the troop-contributing countries, and the Peacebuilding Commission. Chile recognized the need to bolster the gender dimension in current peacekeeping mandates, and recalled the successful inputs by African entities. It also noted the need to strengthen participation of and cooperation with regional organizations.
FRANTIŠEK RU?IÄŒKA (Slovakia) said that his delegation was Chair of the Group of Friends on Security Sector Reform and, in that capacity, had hosted relevant meetings in New York, and had recently hosted the launch of the first set of United Nations integrated technical guidance notes on security sector reform.
Such events provided key lessons pertinent to today's debate, namely, that supporting effective multidimensional peacekeeping efforts required clear strategic priorities across the entire peacekeeping and peacebuilding continuum, as well as ensuring that capacities matched relevant needs and that partnerships strengthened comparative advantages.
He said that the multidimensional nature of security sector reform required civilian staff and uniformed personnel to combine their different skills, bringing together understanding of political, technical and process-oriented aspects of the work at hand. Further, security sector reform was a process that affected many others and, therefore, relevant personnel must be trained accordingly and well ahead of mission deployment.
Finally, he stressed that one of the key recommendations that emerged from the security sector reform events hosted by Slovakia had been that it was vitally important to strengthen partnerships between the United Nations, Member States and regional and subregional organizations in the area. Partnerships should also ensure a greater focus on supporting South-South cooperation in the areas of both security sector reform and peacekeeping.
PETER THOMSON ( Fiji) said that concepts relating to peacekeeping had evolved, with more concerted efforts in recent years on the United Nations responsibility to protect in situations of conflict affecting international peace and security. The interlinked peacekeeping and peacebuilding processes "moves regions and countries in conflict" from being dependent on the United Nations for security to taking control of their own development priorities.
That remained the fundamental principle on which Fiji's proud tradition of participation had been based. Multidimensional peacekeeping required a clear understanding of each situation, and it required clear mandates and exit strategies that included planning for handover of responsibilities to national authorities.
Also crucial was clear and detailed planning to ensure that the peacekeeping-peacebuilding transition was seamless, in order to avoid a relapse into conflict. He trusted the resolution adopted today would provide a useful reference point in such future discussions, as well as guidance for the peacekeeping community as a whole. Fiji would continue to play a positive role as United Nations peacekeeping evolved.
TUVAKO N. MANONGI (United Republic of Tanzania) said one of the lessons learned from Rwanda, Bosnia and Somalia was that peacekeeping must be robust and effective. Thus, it was not a surprise that peacekeepers were deployed to carry out acutely challenging operations, and he believed the notion that troops would be sent into areas only where there was a peace to keep was a nice theory, but a "quaint idea". It was an illusion to assume that the mere deployment of a peace operation would engender peace.
The situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo reminded of that imperative and it was essential that the Council support a more responsive peace operation in that country, as events in Goma last November showed that a robust military presence continued to be critical. He welcomed the Council's commitment to support efforts for peace and stability in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, noting it would find strong partners in the African Union, among other groups. In peacekeeping, it was imperative that forces were able to project a collective resolve.
MARTÍN VIDAL ( Uruguay) said today's topic underscored the importance of enhanced interaction with troop and police contributors, as well as improving the working methods of the Security Council. He called for strengthened dialogue between the contributors and Secretariat, as well as for increasing the effectiveness of peacekeeping mandates, which was all the more critical in the case of multidimensional peacekeeping.
Those operations must be able to ensure a sustainable transition for States emerging from conflict. Efforts to build sustainable peace required concerted efforts by the different protagonists, for which the operations played an essential peacebuilding role, both in establishing the necessary conditions for reconstruction and development, as well as by providing direct collaboration in various areas.
The catalysing role of peacekeeping staff was vital, especially early in peace consolidation, and building the institutional capacities of host countries was another priority. Continuity must be ensured in "critical transition moments" to avoid losing hard-won progress during drawdowns. He stressed, in closing, the importance of multidimensional operations in support of strengthening institutions, dialogue and political inclusion, reconstruction and the establishment of conditions for economic and social development.
HUSSEIN HANIFF ( Malaysia) said progress in United Nations peacekeeping efforts had been seen through the years. Even so, he believed it would be prudent to go back to the basics, and focus more on strengthening partnerships between missions. Efforts should be refocused on integrating peacekeeping core capabilities and finding ways to improve the transition from peacekeeping to peacebuilding.
The Council, the Department of Peacekeeping Operations and the Peacebuilding Commission should find ways to strengthen collaboration among the military and police components of peacekeeping operations, civilian actors, civil society and regional organizations.
More broadly, he said a successful transition from peacekeeping to peacebuilding depended on building State institutions during the peacekeeping period. Failure to work closely with Governments and local actors could bring a return to instability. International assistance through quick impact projects could also complement peacekeeping work carried out through the United Nations.
International development assistance, coordinated by the Peacebuilding Commission, contributed to successful implementation of those projects. In sum, he said peacekeeping missions could only succeed if importance was placed on close collaboration between the various actors.
RODOLFO REYES RODRIGUEZ (Cuba) said multidimensional peacekeeping had been the "rule rather than the exception" since the 1990s. The extension of mandates of existing operations and the creation of new ones must be done in respect of the principles of sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence of States and non-interference in their internal affairs.
Mandates should have concrete objectives, be clearly defined and provided with the necessary resources. The Council should ensure the participation of troop-contributing countries in devising, implementing and renewing mandates. He urged a "phased" approach to establishing mandates and said that mandates should not be adopted until States had made commitments on contingents to be deployed.
He went on to say that peacebuilding work carried out from the early stages of peacekeeping was an important tool for helping countries strengthen their national development strategies.
Every peacebuilding strategy should be based on national experience. The creation of new and more complex peacekeeping operations could not replace addressing the root causes of conflicts. He also reiterated States' primary responsibility to protect civilians. Civilian protection could not be used under any pretext to promote regime change, military intervention or other actions that contravened the Charter.
SEWA LAMSAL ADHIKARI (Nepal) said peacekeeping demanded a multidimensional approach and the coherent involvement of stakeholders. As a leading troop contributor, Nepal had been sending troops since 1958 and had lost more than 60 of its peacekeepers in the line of duty. To make United Nations peacekeeping a successful enterprise, several elements were key. For example, the Council must be guided by a unity of purpose.
Also, operations should be guided by a strategy that stabilized a security situation, supported national political processes and ensured economic reintegration. Further, a framework for consultations with troop and police contributors on the mandating process should be institutionalized. He also cited the provision of necessary resources, guidance for peacekeepers on the rules of engagement for implementation of shared tasks, and effective leadership in the field as critical areas for attention.
ANNE ANDERSON ( Ireland) said that as the early peacebuilding role that could be played by peacekeepers came into focus, it was clear that the role, while a primarily supportive one, was critical in providing the platform that enabled other national and international actors to carry out their work. Indeed, peacekeepers provided security, preserved political space, coordinated assistance and articulated overall peacebuilding strategies.
Understanding the multifaceted role peacekeepers were playing also required stakeholders to employ a heavy dose of realism; namely, whether the Organization was continuing to focus disproportionately on the symptoms of conflict at the expense of tackling the root causes. "Perhaps a paradigm shift is needed," she continued, adding: "rather than straddling peacekeeping missions with more and more responsibilities, we should instead be thinking about enhancing political and peacebuilding missions - as separate operations or as different elements operating within existing missions."
On other issues, she said that one effective way in which the Organization could build on its multidimensional peacekeeping experience was to enhance participation of partners outside the United Nations system, to include regional organizations, donors and other stakeholders. Before concluding, she said that one crucial and transformative element to the success of peacekeepers as early peacebuilders had been "conspicuously absent" from the concept note - the deployment of more women on peacekeeping operations.
She acknowledged the difficulty of that challenge - for Ireland and all troop contributors. For its part, the Irish Defence Forces ensured that personnel received tailored pre-deployment training in the human rights of women and minorities, cultural awareness and codes of conduct. "If we are serious about achieving the current targets for women in peacekeeping, we have to think realistically about finding the necessary incentives and innovative ways to advance towards these targets," she said.
NATTAWUT SABYEROOP (Thailand) said that peacekeeping missions could and must assist in creating an enabling environment that could help countries establish the foundations of peace, reduce the risk of slipping back into conflict, and establish conditions for recovery and long-term development.
If those operations followed such a path, their already vital role could only be enhanced, he said, noting in that regard his delegation's support for further exploration of the concept of peacekeepers as early peacebuilders. While recognizing the responsibility of the Government in ensuring the success of peacebuilding efforts, Thailand nevertheless supported the notion that multidimensional peacekeeping brought comparative advantages to early peacebuilding.
"We must strive for the early formulation of integrated and coherent approaches to post-conflict development based on host country priorities through dialogue and close cooperation," he said, stressing that troop-contributing countries must be in such discussions at every stage, especially early in the mandate-drafting phase, where they could contribute experiences and share lessons learned from the field.
In addition, he said that coherence and coordination "among all the moving parts" was critical. Indeed, troop- and police-contributing countries needed to know how to train their peacekeepers to ensure they carried out their duties in an appropriate manner. Therefore, a more frequent and open consultation process among force contributors, the Secretariat and relevant United Nations agencies was necessary.
YURIY SERGEYEV (Ukraine) said peacekeeping had come a long way in 65 years, adapting to an ever-changing environment. At the time of the first deployment, no one could have envisaged that peacekeeping would cover all five peacebuilding priorities, ranging from security to economic revitalization. It was of utmost importance to ensure a coherence of mutually reinforcing activities. Equally, peacebuilding mandates assigned to complex peacekeeping operations, such as support for security sector reform; disarmament, demobilization and reintegration; and national political and electoral assistance, must be as detailed, credible and achievable as possible.
Also, the operations should be tailored to unique local realities. In that light, Ukraine fully supported today's resolution, as it broadly incorporated his country's vision of how to clarify the evolving nexus between peacekeeping and peacebuilding. Particularly welcome was the Council's commitment to better integrate early peacebuilding tasks into peacekeeping mandates and to ensure that those mandates were matched by appropriate resources, as well as to enhance cooperation with troop- and police-contributing countries. His country was resolved to maintain and advance its multidimensional engagement in United Nations peacekeeping operations in the years to come.
SIGNE BURGSTALLER (Sweden), speaking also on behalf of Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Norway, said multidimensional peacekeeping provided the basis for a link between peacekeeping and peacebuilding. It also placed new demands on missions and there was a need to train police and military personnel.
More efforts should be directed at strengthening peacekeepers' capacity to create an enabling environment for peacebuilding activities, which included security sector reform, rule of law and human rights.
Missions also required stronger civilian capabilities and she fully supported the Secretary-General's initiative to respond to such demands. A stronger focus on coordination and coherence with other field actors was needed, including international financial institutions, regional organizations and bilateral partners.
Such an integrated approach would also allow the Council to achieve its goals without overloading missions with tasks others might be better equipped to carry out in the peacebuilding area. On financing, she underlined the need to ensure sustained international support in the transition from peacekeeping to peacebuilding and long-term development.
RANKO VILOVIÄ† (Croatia) said the durability of ceasefires and peace agreements depended on the readiness to rebuild basic institutions and address the root causes of conflict. The threats to peace were often greatest during that early phase, but so too were opportunities to set virtuous cycles in motion.
The route countries took from the start of their recovery from conflict would significantly determine their prospects. While recognizing the primary responsibility of national authorities in identifying peacebuilding strategies, he strongly supported a comprehensive, coherent and integrated approach to such work.
He went on to stress the need for cooperation between the host Government and international community in such work, as well as coordination among all stakeholders. The Peacebuilding Commission aimed to support countries by bringing actors together and filling the gap between security and reconstruction through an integrated approach.
In that context, Croatia strongly supported efforts to broaden and deepen the pool of civilian capacities for peacebuilding. He welcomed the Council's commitment to regularly assess the mandate and composition of operations, and strongly supported requests for more "dynamic" relations between the Council and the Commission.
MACHARIA KAMAU (Kenya) said that multidimensional peacekeeping operations required peacekeepers to not only maintain peace and security, but also to, among others, facilitate political processes, protect civilians, assist in disarmament demobilization and reintegration of ex-fighters, protect and promote human rights, and assist in restoring the rule of law. If all those activities where tackled in an effective and comprehensive manner, a good foundation for lasting peace and democracy would be laid.
As for the complex and unique situation in Africa, host to the largest number of peacekeeping missions, he said a multidimensional peacekeeping approach necessitated an embrace of the role of regional organizations and entities in order to increase the chances for the success of United Nations operations.
Turning to specific situations, he said that United Nations peacekeeping operations must play a role of facilitating the peaceful resolution of ongoing disputes between Sudan and South Sudan, tackling the ongoing ethnic and tribal conflict in Darfur, and confronting the serious threat posed by the rebel group M23 in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Indeed, the recent activities of the M23 were a "wake-up call" for the urgent review of the mandate of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in the country, he said, declaring: "Peacekeeping cannot be passive and indifferent to the plight of populations, lest it loses credibility and does irreparable damage to the reputation of the United Nations."
In addition, he said that while normalcy was returning to West Africa in Côte d'Ivoire, Sierra Leone and Liberia, the recent takeover of northern Mali by Al-Qaida and affiliated Islamist Militia, along with developments in the Central African Republic were "a tragic reversal". Those situations called for a quick and decisive international response backed by a more sophisticated and specialized United Nations peacekeeping effort.
Before concluding, he noted that his country had only been reimbursed "a fraction" of the millions of dollars for its participation in the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), and he urged the Security Council and relevant Secretariat entities to ensure that the logistical needs of troops were effectively addressed and that a timely and total reimbursement was carried out without unwarranted delays.
TALAIBEK KYDYROV (Kyrgyzstan) said that, with the nature of peacekeeping continuing to evolve, his delegations supported all measures aimed at strengthening the operational potential of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, especially in promoting women to relevant positions on peacekeeping missions.
That effort could include, among others, increasing the number of women police officers to 20 per cent by 2014, and, more broadly, implementing mechanisms that could better mobilize resources to ensure the overall success of peacekeeping operations. It was also necessary to achieve the realization of the goals of the Global Field Support Strategy to improve the quality of services and effectively carry out mission mandates.
"We believe that modern peacekeeping tasks and resource deficits require enhancing cooperation with regional organizations," he continued, noting that, while it was important for the Peacekeeping Department to continue its cooperation with traditional partners such as the African Union and the European Union, it must also increase interaction with other regional structures such as the Collective Security Treaty Organization. In that regard, he welcomed the recent signing of a memorandum of understanding between that organization and the Peacekeeping Department, which would lead to the elaboration of joint activities in the area. (end0
YOUSSOUFOU BAMBA (Côte d'Ivoire), speaking on behalf of the 15-nation Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), said that, with the changing nature of conflict from inter-State to intra-State, missions were placing increasing emphasis on civilian protection. That was costing the lives of peacekeepers, as had occurred in his country, and he hailed their memory. The threat of new, non-State actors, including in West Africa and the Sahel, reflected the complex character of conflicts, as was the case in Mali.
In the face of such threats, the Council and international community must provide appropriate resources. In West Africa, ECOWAS could boast considerable experience in more than 20 years of engagement in conflict settlement, he said, noting that its protocol on the prevention, management and settlement of conflicts enabled immediate deployment of a standby force.
In Mali, he said, robust international engagement required prior authorization by the African Union and Security Council and, thus, resolution 2085 (2012) had been adopted authorizing the deployment of the African-led International Support Mission in Mali (AFISMA). The recent offensive by terrorist groups in the south of Mali had required decisive action by France.
That situation, as well as the deadly hostage-taking situation at an oil facility in Algeria, demonstrated the need for the United Nations to consider ways to respond more effectively to those types of practices and further explore the possibilities offered by peacekeeping operations. The analysis conducted on 12 January 2012 during a high-level debate of the Council, organized by South Africa's presidency, on vital cooperation with regional organizations, including the African Union and ECOWAS, in the context of the Charter's Chapter VIII, should be built upon.
It was often said that the United Nations' job was not to wage war, he noted. He agreed, however, in light of the large-scale massacres of civilians, massive human rights violations, and attempts by terrorist groups and crime networks to destabilize sovereign States, "is the UN simply to stand idle and watch passively?" he asked. He hoped, when a situation required it, that the Council would formulate more robust mandates and that those would be paired with the necessary human, material and financial resources.
JOHN LEONARD MUGERWA (Uganda) said it was critical to ensure that United Nations peacekeeping operations and those authorized by the Organization - such as AMISOM - had clearly defined mandates, objectives, command structures and resources. Each mission should take into account the needs and priorities of the country concerned through consultations with Governments and others at the earliest possible stages of mission planning.
He said enhanced cooperation among the Council, troop and police contributors and the Secretariat was needed to address challenges in a spirit of partnership, also underlining the need for the Council to continue to support regional initiatives. Finally, he said incorporating peacebuilding activities such as quick-impact projects during the early stages of peacekeeping was critical for success. Attention must focus on building national institutions in areas such as security sector reform.
ABDOU SALAM DIALLO (Senegal) said peacekeeping operations had long played an invaluable role in laying the foundations for peacebuilding; from traditional ceasefire monitoring to support for elections, the nature of peacekeeping had always been complex. Such operations must now contribute to the protection and promotion of human rights, as well as help national actors combat the spread of pandemics, among other duties.
By example, he noted the success of the United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT), which had continued to transform its operational activities - from ensuring security to assisting with training of national police - as the situation had changed on the ground. He also noted the importance of economic activities, which were key to ensuring that peace and security gains were built upon. Convinced of the need to tackle collectively all aspects of international peace and security, Senegal, he said, was providing some 2,000 troops in a number of theatres throughout Africa.
MOHAMED KHALED KHIARI ( Tunisia) said that his country, as a contributor to United Nations peacekeeping operations since 1960, attached great importance to its fundamental role. As the nature of the threats to international peace and security had changed, so too had the challenges facing the peace missions. Once limited to protecting boundaries, peacekeeping troops were nowadays deployed to protect State institutions and civilians.
Intra-State conflicts and the challenge of providing more effective and sustainable responses expanded an operation's scope and mandate. The new responsibilities highlighted the increasingly strong link between peacekeeping and peacebuilding. In that light, work should continue in post-conflict settings to secure a smooth transition to lasting peace, security and sustainable development.
The United Nations must play the central role in attaining that common vision and in bringing together the various actors, including national authorities and development partners. Peacekeeping and peacebuilding were increasingly taking into account realities on the ground, but language skills must not be overlooked; they were crucial for ensuring a smooth interaction with the local populations. Effective peacekeeping and peacebuilding required the full participation of troop-contributing countries in decision-making.
KARINE KHOUDAVERDIAN ( Armenia) said that resolving conflict and achieving a durable settlement required a comprehensive approach and considerable investment in, among others, mediation. The ways in which the United Nations and regional organizations assisted countries emerging from conflict should be reassessed, and the principle of "do no harm" should be upheld to ensure that negotiations and mediation processes were not undermined. More systematic attention should be paid to post-conflict peacebuilding as an element of the Council's work.
Armenia remained committed to post-conflict peacebuilding initiatives and believed that the Council should strengthen rule of law and advance development initiatives by supporting peacebuilding mechanisms, such as the Peacebuilding Commission. It should also promote efforts aimed at preventing a relapse into armed conflict and building a sustainable peace. All programmes should be country-specific, needs-based, and target-oriented.
She joined other speakers in calling for women's equal and effective participation at all stages of conflict prevention and resolution, and the transition to peace. Female peacekeepers empowered women in local environments and their contributions led to better outcomes for entire societies. Finally, she paid tribute to the tens of thousands of blue helmets that had served the cause of peace under the United Nations banner.
CARLOS ENRIQUE GARCÍA GONZÁLEZ (El Salvador) recalled that the General Assembly's 2005 World Summit had been forward-looking in that it had called for an intensive focus on strengthening the Organization's peacebuilding architecture. That call had led to the establishment of the Peacebuilding Commission and the broader recognition that long-term development was crucial to addressing the root causes of tension and conflict.
He said that a multidimensional approach to peacekeeping, which addressed development along with such issues as migration, was becoming more and more necessary. Peacekeeping operations must be given broader mandates that allowed them, where and when necessary, the ability to address an array of evolving issues, he said.
PALITHA KOHONA (Sri Lanka) said that his delegation strongly believed that the performance and direction of United Nations peacekeeping operations should be regularly reviewed in order to maintain a focus on priorities, goals set by Member States and ground realities.
Further, Member States should not permit peacekeeping missions to be burdened by outdated frameworks, and the current debate could help bring into focus the evolving relationship between peacekeeping and peacebuilding. He said that peacekeeping should not be treated as a substitute for addressing the root causes of conflict and should only be considered as an effective tool to contribute to creating an environment that would allow vital issues to be addressed through implementing political solutions.
He said that, in the role of "early peacebuilders", United Nations peacekeepers must be made aware of the challenges they faced from the earliest stages of mission deployment. Indeed, they should be sent into the field only after careful assessment of conflict situations. The ultimate goal should be building institutional capacities in affected countries to enable them to conduct their own affairs. Once the basic framework for peace had been created, and measures to address root causes were in place, an exit strategy must be elaborated.
Such a strategy must not lead to a hasty withdrawal and must ensure the safety and security of peacekeepers. "In our view, United Nations peacekeeping operations, despite their shortcomings, remain vastly superior in terms of effectiveness and efficiency to other alternatives," he said, stressing in that regard that resource gaps related to reimbursement to troop-contributing countries must be resolved in a way that did not place undue burdens on those countries.
USMAN SARKI ( Nigeria) said that peace was not only about separating the warring parties or enforcing ceasefires, but about strengthening State capacities to provide security and development. Peacekeeping, along with peacemaking and peacebuilding, therefore, was an investment in keeping people alive. Nigeria's contingents had served in many areas since the country's independence in 1960. In recent years, the role of peacekeeping had given way to much more complex operations, which pursued a variety of objectives simultaneously.
That placed a huge burden on the United Nations, which required considerable funding and a variety of actors, not only capable of enforcing peace, but of assisting such functions as reconstruction and renewal of institutions. More should be done to prevent the outbreak of conflict, for which the United Nations should develop its full capacity to monitor "all hot spots".
As peacekeeping was still required, he pointed to several aspects critical to its success, including the creation of reserve capacities among United Nations and regional partners, an increase in civilian components to enhance post-conflict reconstruction, and an increase in the monitoring and oversight capacity of Member States and the Security Council. Women's groups and traditional leaders, among others, should be provided with adequate resources, as they were integral parts of all peace operations.
JEROBEAM SHAANIKA (Namibia) said that the evolution of the nature and scope of peacekeeping operations brought challenges and complexities. In order to meet the changing demands, he called for the creation of enabling conditions at an early stage to ensure a mission's success. The international community, particularly the Security Council, must at all times demonstrate political will and send a clear message of its intention to act when necessary. Peace, as the cornerstone of sustainable development, must be promoted.
While each operation was unique, "hard lessons" could still be drawn from past mistakes. Peacekeeping remained an essential means of assisting people in conflict areas, but there should also be strong emphasis on prevention and peacebuilding. That effort required well-trained, disciplined and motivated personnel. Regional and subregional organizations were equally important partners and it was critical to strengthen their early warning capacity to monitor, detect and contain conflicts before they became "full-blown".
He acknowledged the role of women, who were often a source of inspiration in conflict areas, and noted that his country had heeded the Secretary-General's call to nominate women to serve in various peace missions.
AHMAD ALLAM-MI (Chad) said that today it was impossible to discuss sustainable peacekeeping without discussion of the need to mobilize the international community to address issues such as terrorism, marginalization and development. Those issues, if not comprehensively addressed, could destabilize societies and spark threats to international and regional peace and security. It was also important to acknowledge that United Nations peacekeeping operations "are often slow to get going", a fact which highlighted the importance of regional and subregional entities.
His own President had taken the initiative to address belligerents in that country, with the support of the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), he said by way of example. Time constraints prevented him from providing a detailed list of his country's contributions to United Nations peacekeeping operations, but he said that Chad remained committed to such activities, as well as to all matters devoted to strengthening collective security.
SOPHIA NYAMUDEZA (Zimbabwe) said it was clear that partnership was the cornerstone of the success of United Nations peacekeeping and, in that light, it was important to ensure and enhance the role and participation of troop-contributing countries in policy formulation and decision-making.
Strong coordination and communication among those countries, the Security Council, the Secretariat and host Governments was necessary, especially given the size and dynamism of modern peacekeeping operations. She said that it was important for Member States to reach consensus on relevant policies and approaches that would be implemented, as it was vital to avoid changing the mandated tasks assigned to missions without first consulting troop contributors.
She went on to urge the Council to draft clear and achievable mandates, and not rush to adopt those that lacked political support or sufficient resources. "It is our view that unjustified expansion of the capacities of peacekeeping operations could easily blur the line between peacekeeping and peace enforcement, or jeopardize the impartiality of a mission's military component," she said.
Continuing, she said that Zimbabwe supported enhanced integration of peacekeeping and peacebuilding, and believed it was, therefore, important to formulate an integrated and coherent approach to post-conflict development that built upon host country priorities and encouraged concerned countries to get back up and running in a sustainable manner.
AMANUEL YOANES AJAWIN (South Sudan) said that since his country's independence on 9 July 2011 it had confronted enormous nation-building and development tasks. The Government and United Nations had immediately embarked on a peacebuilding support plan, which involved security sector reform, human rights promotion, State-building, and economic development. Some progress had been made, but much remained to be done, especially in the area of civilian protection. In the last year, the country had experienced unprovoked attacks by Sudan. Although protection was among the Government's priorities, it sought a more robust effort by UNMIS.
Also crucial was coordination and communication between the Mission and Government, to avoid potentially dangerous situations. He expressed condolences to the Russian crew and Government for the crash of their helicopter on 21 December 2012, and said his Government was carrying out a credible investigation of the incident.
He urged UNMIS to achieve more in building infrastructure, implementing quick-impact projects, and providing greater support to the judges and police. The Mission had greatly helped his Government to overcome many of its "teething problems", but the Council and Government should build on the achievements and work on the gaps and challenges.
MILORAD ŠÄ†EPANOVIÄ† (Montenegro) said that significant progress had been made in developing the peacekeeping and peacebuilding link. Incorporating the peacebuilding perspective in the mandates of peace operations "has come a long way" and should be enhanced. The active engagement and close collaboration of a wide range of stakeholders was of the utmost priority to ensure complementarity and comprehensiveness in pursuit of lasting peace and stability. Close partnerships and system-wide cohesion among United Nations bodies and their growing connection with regional, subregional and other organizations was an irreplaceable tool for the success of the operations.
Equally important was coordination between host Governments and international partners. Institution- and capacity-building in peacekeeping mandates, particularly in the fields of justice, security and enforcement, were critical components of peacebuilding. In that vein, he advocated for an expanded pool of relevant experts, and underlined the need to include women as active partners in peace missions and in all peacebuilding activities. Montenegro, although small, was determined to contribute actively and constructively to peacekeeping and peacebuilding.
Y. HALIT ÇEVIK (Turkey) said peacekeeping operations played a critical role in supporting a country as it tried to provide a better future for all its inhabitants. Security was a prerequisite for development and, in turn, development generated more security. Thus, ensuring sustainable development should be at the heart of all peacekeeping efforts, and his delegation wholeheartedly supported the notion of "peacekeepers as early peacebuilders". Turkey also believed that peacemaking should be added to that nexus, as it was essential to ensure that all three tools working within a coherent framework was key to achieving sustainability.
He said that actively supporting national authorities in building their capacities was essential, particularly taking into account the fact that peacekeeping was primarily a national responsibility. To that end, Turkey welcomed the civilian capacity initiative, he said, also noting that peacekeeping missions were "economic forces" in their own right and that it was important to strengthen their link with local economics.
However, he said it was important to acknowledge that there was often considerable resentment, reaction and opposition to peacekeeping missions. One of the priorities of any peacekeeping mission should be to win the hearts and minds of local peoples, which could primarily be achieved by demonstrating the path to a better future.
As such, carefully addressing root causes would be beneficial to the international community as a whole. Finally, he said that the peacebuilding element of peacekeeping operations was important during the transition and withdrawal phase. Therefore, when peacekeeping contingents were being scaled down, the level of support for peacekeeping must be maintained.
MASOOD KHAN (Pakistan), speaking in his national capacity, said he wished to respond to the comment made by the Indian delegate that the 1972 agreement between the two countries had "overtaken" the role of UNMOGIP. The military observer group, said Mr. Khan, continued to monitor the ceasefire in accordance with Security Council resolutions. Its mandate was, therefore, fully valid, relevant and operative.
MANISH GUPTA (India) said that UNMOGIP had been put in place to supervise the ceasefire line as result of the 1949 agreement. That ceasefire line no longer existed; the new one was established on 17 December 1971 and followed by an agreement between the two countries in 1972, which settled their issues by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations. Any line of control resulting from the ceasefire line of 1971 should be respected by both sides. And the line denoted pursuant to that accord had been agreed by both Governments. Thus, the role of the United Nations Mission was overtaken by that.
Mr. KHAN (Pakistan) said the fact was that both India and Pakistan were hosting UNMOGIP.
JEAN-FRANCIS RÉGIS ZINSOU (Benin) said peacekeeping operations were a crucial part of the United Nations work and the international community had made significant strides in adapting that "precious tool" to changing global circumstances. Nevertheless, there was a need to ensure complementary efforts between traditional peacekeeping and multidimensional peacebuilding activities.
Harmonization of security measures must also complement institution-building, as such structures would ultimately be charged with maintaining stability once the situation returned to normal. Further, he said that there should be ongoing consultations between the Council, the Peacebuilding Commission and national authorities.
He also called for coherence and continuity in the management structure of missions to ensure a smoother transition between peacekeeping and peacebuilding structures. Finally, he underscored the need for cooperation among Member States to assist the least developed countries to participate in peacekeeping and peacebuilding efforts.