Deposed President Mohamed Mursi and his top aides stood trial on Monday on charges of inciting violence against the regime's opponents in clashes last year.
The clashes followed a constitutional decree that angered the ex-president's opponents and killed about a dozen people.
The trial was adjourned to January 8 as Mursi insisted he is still the legitimate president of the region's most populous country.
"I am the legitimate president of Egypt. The court is liable for not allowing the president to leave this place and practice his constitutional and legal responsibilities," Mursi said.
He described his trial, which his supporters do not acknowledge as legal, as a political cover for the military coup.
Egyptian state television aired footage of the ousted president stepping out of a white van in a dark blue suit and another of him joining the other defendants behind bars.
The footage also showed his supporters clapping upon his arrival to the courtroom and chanting in solidarity with the Rabaa sit-in that was violently dispersed by security forces in August.
The authorities banned reporters from taking footage of the trial but released poor quality footage taken by the interior ministry.
Mursi will be moved to Alexandria's Borg al-Arab Prison rather than Tora Prison, state media said on Monday, denying initial reports that he would be moved to Tora Prison.
Mursi, who hails from the Muslim Brotherhood, was ousted by the army in July, in response to mass demonstrations across the country.
His removal came exactly a year after he was announced Egypt's first democratically elected president since the Jan. 25 uprising that toppled Hosni Mubarak in 2011.
Dozens of Brotherhood supporters gathered by the Cairo Police Academy, where Mursi was tried, early on Monday, repeating slogans against the army.