The Security Council today extended the mandate of the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUSCO) until 31 March 2015.
Unanimously adopting resolution 2147 (2014), the Council decided that the renewed mandate would also include MONUSCO's Intervention Brigade -- "on an exceptional basis and without creating a precedent or any prejudice" -- within the authorized troop ceiling of 19,815 military personnel, 760 military observers and staff officers, 391 police personnel and 1,050 formed police units.
At the same time, the 15-member body noted the need for a clear exit strategy, including for MONUSCO's Intervention Brigade, and decided that the Mission's further reconfigurations and mandates should be based on the evolving situation and progress towards several objectives set out in accordance with its three priorities -- protecting civilians, stabilizing the country, and supporting implementation of the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the region.
The Council's action followed its consideration of the Secretary-General's latest report on MONUSCO (document S/2014/157), in which he states that the comprehensive approach he recommended early in 2013 "has started to bear fruit". Also before the Council was his report on the implementation of the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework (document S/2014/153).
The Council requested the Secretary-General to conduct a thorough strategic review of MONUSCO and the wider United Nations presence in the country in order to provide recommendations on its future objectives, exit strategy and effective resource deployment. It asked him to report back to the Council by 30 December 2014, bearing in mind the need to increase the Mission's effectiveness.
Further by the wide-ranging text, the Council condemned the operations of armed groups and their violations of international humanitarian law and other principles of international law. It demanded that they cease immediately all violence and other destabilizing activities by permanently disbanding, laying down their arms and demobilizing children from their ranks. It urged accountability for the perpetrators of war crimes and crimes against humanity.
The Council directed MONUSCO to enhance its interaction with the civilian population, and to ensure that any support it provided to the national security forces was in strict compliance with the United Nations due-diligence policy on human rights. It commended the Mission and its Intervention Brigade for their positive impact in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, and encouraged it to maximize "inter-operability", flexibility and effectiveness. It also tasked MONUSCO with reducing the threat posed by Congolese and foreign armed groups, as well as violence against civilians -- including sexual and gender-based violence -- to a level manageable by national justice and security structures.
In that connection, the Council authorized the Mission to "take all necessary measures" needed to perform those and other tasks. They included, alongside civilian protection, neutralizing armed groups through the Intervention Brigade; monitoring implementation of the arms embargo; supporting judicial processes, including by promoting peace consolidation and inclusive, transparent political dialogue; and encouraging the consolidation of an effective national civilian structure to control key mining activities while managing the equitable extraction of and trade in natural resources.
Noting that more than a year had passed since hundreds of M23 combatants had fled the Democratic Republic of the Congo for Rwanda, the resolution encouraged the Congolese Government to ensure the permanent demobilization of those fighters, paying due attention to the children and women among them.
The Council called on the Government and its partners to ensure a transparent and credible electoral process, and urged the international community, including donors, to support MONUSCO and the United Nations country team. It also asked neighbouring States to remain engaged in the transfer of responsibilities.
Following the text's adoption, the representative of the Democratic Republic of the Congo said that the Intervention Brigade, under its renewed mandate, should consolidate efforts to preserve peace in his country and the wider region, adding that his Government was preparing a rapid-reaction force to assume responsibility from the Brigade "when the time comes". In parallel to training and equipping the new force, significant progress had been made in terms of combating rebel forces, protecting civilians and strengthening the Government's capacity, he said.
Noting that M23 had been defeated and that the suppression of the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), the Ugandan rebel group, was nearing an end, he said operations against the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) were "imminent" and that "decisive operations against the FDLR will take place very soon". In connection with the threat posed by the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), he welcomed efforts by the United States to protect civilians against the atrocities perpetrated by that movement and assured the Council of his own Government's determination to eradicate all "negative forces". Today's resolution met the aspirations of the Congolese people and contributed importantly to peace in the country and beyond, he said, recalling that a recent meeting of regional Heads of State had committed to "neutralize the negative forces by all means available".
He said that his Government had spared no effort to shoulder its responsibilities, citing the recent promulgation of an amnesty law covering crimes committed on Congolese territory between 2006 and 2013. That had made possible the reintegration of former fighters, as had a framework of cooperation with international partners to ensure the orderly disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of armed groups, particularly in North Kivu Province. The Government had also been coordinating with countries hosting refugees to ensure their return. Each day, more internally displaced persons returned to their homes, which had been made more secure since the "re-conquering" of territories occupied by rebel groups, he said.
Regarding elections, he said a new electoral committee had been created. It included representatives of the major opposition groups as well as civil society representatives. However, there was a need to accelerate preparations for the polls, he said, reiterating his Government's request for logistical and technical support. Concerning national reconciliation, he reported that the Government had passed more than 600 resolutions and recommendations with the aim of building national cohesion. It had begun a decentralization process in 2006, and plans were in place to accelerate reforms as soon as State authority took hold throughout the national territory.
Sexual violence remained of great concern, he said, noting his Government's "zero-tolerance" policy, as illustrated by recent charges and trials against several rebel leaders. Other concerns persisted, he said, noting that while his country had been implementing its obligations, some "do not seem worried" about fulfilling theirs. The Democratic Republic of the Congo "has the feeling" that the international community was not sufficiently vigilant and attentive, particularly in relation to the stockpiles of arms found after the M23's defeat. That was very worrying because the amount of weapons and other war materiel found showed that those who had financed M23 were prepared for a wide-ranging war against the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
He went on to urge the United Nations, as the guardian of peace, to ask "very serious questions" about the purpose of that arsenal, which could have killed millions more in the country. A balance of forces must be maintained in the region, and while the joint verification mechanism had been expanded throughout the Great Lakes region, essential resources to fulfil the task were lacking, he said, urging the Council to include that in its list of priorities. A further concern was the illegal use of natural resources, he continued, calling on the Council to be more diligent in certifying the origin of exported raw materials, the outflows of which were not commensurate with natural-resource capacity.
Rwanda's representative expressed hope that today's mandate extension would revive efforts by the Mission and its Intervention Brigade to neutralize the armed groups that sustained the threat against eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo and his own country. He reminded the Council that FDLR were under sanctions for having perpetrated the 1994 genocide in his country and continued to promote ethnic-based killings. The group had destabilized the region for 20 years, and there were ongoing reports of widespread rape, killings and the use of children as soldiers and slaves, he said.
He went on to state that FDLR held hostage those refugees hoping to return to Rwanda, and had recently perpetrated grenade attacks against innocent civilians in public markets and bus stations, mostly in Kigali. The text adopted today expressed concern over the group's continuing free movement throughout the Democratic Republic of the Congo, he noted, adding that it also reiterated the Council's commitment to eliminate the threat posed by the "genocidal movement" as part of a comprehensive plan to address and permanently eliminate insecurity. Rwanda steadfastly supported regional peace, stability and prosperity through its national, bilateral and regional commitments, he emphasized.
The meeting began at 10:04 a.m. and ended at 10:31.
"The Security Council,
"Recalling its previous resolutions and the statements of its President concerning the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), especially its resolutions 2136 (2014), 2098 (2013), 2078 (2012), 2076 (2012) and 2053 (2012),
"Recalling its resolution 2086 (2013) and reaffirming the basic principles of peacekeeping, including consent of the parties, impartiality, and non-use of force, except in self-defence and defence of the mandate, and recognizing that the mandate of each peacekeeping mission is specific to the need and situation of the country concerned,
"Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of the DRC, as well as all States in the region and emphasizing the need to respect fully the principles of non-interference, good-neighbourliness and regional cooperation,
"Stressing the primary responsibility of the government of DRC for ensuring security in its territory and protecting its civilians with respect to the rule of law, human rights and international humanitarian law,
"Noting that eastern DRC has continued to suffer from recurring cycles of conflict and persistent violence by armed groups, both Congolese and foreign, and emphasizing the need to address the root causes of conflict to put an end to these recurring cycles of violence,
"Welcoming the efforts of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), and the African Union (AU) to restore peace and security in eastern DRC, and encouraging the government of the DRC to continue to ensure close cooperation with these and other international parties,
"Recalling the signing in Addis Ababa on 24 February 2013 of the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the region ("the PSC Framework"), under the auspices of its guarantors, namely the Secretary-General of the United Nations, the Chairperson of the AU Commission, the Chairperson of the SADC and Chairperson of the ICGLR, and calling on all parties to continue to implement promptly, fully and in good faith their respective commitments,
"Welcoming the Regional Oversight Mechanism's calling for a broader political dialogue in its January 2014 communiqué, and the initial dialogue between key signatories states initiated by Angola in its role as Chair of the ICGLR, encouraging the continuation of such dialogue under the auspices of the PSC Framework to resolve the root causes of conflict in the DRC and the Great Lakes region, and welcoming the continued engagement of the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for the Great Lakes region,
"Reaffirming its strongest support to the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the DRC (MONUSCO) in the implementation of their mandate, and strongly encouraging the continuation of their efforts,
"Reiterating its deep concern regarding the security and humanitarian crisis in eastern DRC due to ongoing destabilizing activities of foreign and domestic armed groups, and stressing the importance of neutralizing all armed groups, including the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), the Bakata-Katanga and various Mayi Mayi groups,
"Welcoming the end of the rebellion by the 23 March Movement (M23) and the signing in Nairobi by the M23, the Government of DRC, the SADC and the ICGLR of the documents concluding the Kampala Dialogue facilitated by Uganda as chair of the ICGLR, stressing the importance of ensuring that all provisions of the signed documents are implemented swiftly and in good faith and, in this regard, that the M23 does not regroup and resume military activities, in line with the Nairobi declarations and relevant Security Council resolutions,
"Expressing deep concern regarding the sustained regional threat posed by the FDLR, a group under UN sanctions whose leaders and members include perpetrators of the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda, during which Hutu and others who opposed the genocide were also killed, and have continued to promote and commit ethnically-based and other killings in Rwanda and the DRC, and stressing the importance of permanently addressing this threat,
"Expressing concern that the FDLR, as well as other armed groups, continue to have freedom of movement in the DRC, noting with deep concern reports indicating FARDC collaboration with the FDLR at a local level and welcoming in this regard the plans by the FARDC, supported by MONUSCO, to neutralize the FDLR, and stressing the need to put such plans into sustained action,
"Recalling the Security Council's Presidential Statements on the Central African Region and the LRA, including S/PRST/2013/18 and S/PRST/2013/6, commending the important ongoing efforts being undertaken by MONUSCO in the fight against the LRA, encouraging further efforts of the AU-Regional task force, and urging greater cooperation and information-sharing between relevant UN bodies, the AU-Regional Task Force regional forces and non-governmental organisations in tackling the threat of the LRA,
"Expressing deep concern regarding the increasing number of internally displaced persons in the DRC, now reaching more than 2.9 million, and the over 450,000 refugees from eastern DRC caused by the various Congolese and foreign armed groups active in the region, calling upon the DRC and all States in the region to work towards the peaceful environment conducive to the eventual voluntary return and reintegration of refugees to the DRC, with the support, as appropriate, of the UNHCR, commending in this regard the support provided by neighbouring countries to refugees from the DRC and encouraging the Rwandan and the Ugandan Governments, United Nations and international organizations to work together to urgently address the situation of former M23 combatants in Uganda and Rwanda,
"Noting that it has been more than a year that hundreds of M23 combatants, including individuals designated by the Security Council, fled from the DRC into Rwanda on 18 March 2013, encouraging the Government of Rwanda, with the assistance of relevant UN and international organizations, to continue to ensure that these combatants are permanently demobilized and are dealt with according to relevant international law including special attention to children and women among them, and recalling the Member States' obligations, as renewed by resolution 2136 (2014),
"Calling upon all parties in the conflict to respect the impartiality, independence and neutrality of humanitarian actors,
"Remaining greatly concerned by the humanitarian situation that continues to severely affect the civilian population, in particular in eastern DRC, and the persistent high levels of violence and violations and abuses of human rights and violations of international law, condemning in particular those involving the targeted attacks against civilians, widespread sexual and gender-based violence, systematic recruitment and use of children by certain parties to the conflict, the displacement of significant numbers of civilians, extrajudicial executions and arbitrary arrests and recognizing their deleterious effect on the stabilization, reconstruction and development efforts in the DRC,
"Recalling its resolutions 1325 (2000), 1820 (2008), 1888 (2009), 1889 (2009), 1960 (2010), 2106 (2013) and 2122 (2013) on women, peace and security, its resolutions 1265 (1999), 1296 (2000), 1674 (2006), 1738 (2006) and 1894 (2009) on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, and its resolutions 1612 (2005), 1882 (2009), 1998 (2011), 2068 (2012) and 2143 (2014) on children and armed conflict,
"Welcoming the efforts of MONUSCO and international partners in delivering training in human rights, child protection and protection from sexual and gender-based violence for Congolese security institutions and underlining its importance, and welcoming the establishment of the Women's Platform for the PSC Framework in an effort to ensure the full participation of women in the PSC Framework peace process,
"Noting the ongoing efforts made by the Government of the DRC to combat sexual violence in conflict including through the implementation of its National Strategy and the commitments outlined in the Joint Communiqué between the Government of the DRC and the United Nations on the Fight Against Sexual Violence in Conflict adopted in Kinshasa on 30 March 2013, and strongly encouraging the Government of DRC to increase its efforts in this regard,
"Acknowledging the adoption of the Framework of Cooperation between the United Nations Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict and the African Union Commission Concerning the Prevention and Response to Conflict-related Sexual Violence in Africa adopted in Addis Ababa on 31 January 2014,
"Taking note of the report of the Secretary-General S/2014/181 which includes a list of parties responsible for patterns of rape and other forms of sexual violence in situations of armed conflict,
"Condemning the mass rapes in Minova and the surrounding villages in November 2012 reportedly committed by soldiers of the Armed forces of the DRC (FARDC), taking note of the investigations and arrests undertaken thereafter by the Congolese authorities and the initial trials that are underway, expressing concern at the delays in the trials of those indicted, and urging the Congolese authorities to hold the perpetrators accountable while ensuring all investigations and trials respect due process,
"Calling for all those responsible for violations of international humanitarian law or violations and abuses of human rights, as applicable, including those involving violence or abuses against children and acts of sexual and gender-based violence, to be swiftly apprehended, brought to justice and held accountable,
"Stressing the need for cooperation with the International Criminal Court (ICC) by the Government of the DRC, welcoming the commitment made by the Government of the DRC to hold accountable those responsible for serious crimes, in particular war crimes and crimes against humanity, in the country, and stressing the importance of actively seeking to hold accountable those responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity in the country and of regional and international cooperation to this end,
"Recalling the Secretary-General's call to the Council to reject any endorsement of amnesty for genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity or gross violations of human rights and international humanitarian law, and welcoming in this regard the promulgation of the Amnesty law in DRC, excluding those who have committed genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity or gross violations of human rights and international humanitarian law, and urging the government of DRC to follow through by undertaking the necessary judicial reform to ensure that the DRC effectively addresses impunity,
"Urging the Government of the DRC to remain fully committed to the implementation of the PSC Framework, including through the adoption of a priority action plan, and to protecting the civilian population through the swift establishment of professional, accountable and sustainable security forces, the deployment of an accountable Congolese civil administration, in particular the police, judiciary, prison and territorial administration and the consolidation of rule of law and promotion and protection of human rights,
"Urging the Government of the DRC to take immediate steps to uphold its commitment to security sector reform, including the creation and support of a Rapid Reaction Force, the development of a roadmap for the security and justice sectors, the development of a comprehensive Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) and Disarmament, Demobilization, Repatriation, Resettlement and Reintegration (DDRRR) plan, noting in this regard that the Government has proposed a new DDR plan, all of which will require the allocation of necessary resources and a continued commitment from the Government to prioritize reform, and regretting that progress has been slow up to date,
"Reiterating its call on all parties to cooperate fully with MONUSCO, and its condemnation of any and all attacks against peacekeepers, emphasizing that those responsible for such attacks must be held accountable, and recalling its decision to extend sanctions measures outlined in paragraph 3 of the resolution 2136 (2014) to individuals and entities who plan, direct, sponsor or participate in attacks against MONUSCO peacekeepers,
"Reiterating its call upon the Secretary-General to take all measures deemed necessary to strengthen UN field security arrangements and improve the safety and security of all military contingents, police officers, military observers, and especially unarmed observers,
"Recognizing the significant sacrifices made by MONUSCO, commending the active steps taken by MONUSCO, including its Intervention Brigade acting with the support of and in cooperation with MONUSCO's wider Force structure, to implement fully its mandate, in particular the protection of civilians, and encouraging the continuation of these efforts by the Mission,
"Affirming that the successful protection of civilians is critical to the fulfilment of MONUSCO's mandate and the delivery of an improved security environment, in this regard, recognising that MONUSCO has successfully deterred attacks on civilians through its approach to protection of civilians and welcoming the efforts made by the mission to adapt the Force in order to enhance the delivery of the mission's comprehensive protection of civilians strategy, including by becoming more flexible, versatile, and widely deployable across the whole of eastern DRC,
"Underlining the importance of MONUSCO deterring any threats to the implementation of its mandate,
"Recognizing the contribution of MONUSCO to a comprehensive strategy for durable peace and security, noting with appreciation the contribution that MONUSCO makes to early peacebuilding and emphasizing that MONUSCO's activities should be conducted in a manner so as to facilitate post-conflict peacebuilding, prevention of relapse into armed conflict and progress towards sustainable peace and development,
"Stressing the importance of the full and urgent implementation of the PSC Framework to permanently reducing threats against civilians, noting the need for MONUSCO to strengthen support to the government of the DRC to enable it to address security challenges and extend state authority of the government of DRC as expressed in paragraph 5 of the PSC Framework, and recognizing the need for a comprehensive peace process to put an end to the sources of conflict in the region,
"Determining that the situation in the DRC continues to constitute a threat to international peace and security in the region,
"Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,
"1. Decides to extend the mandate of MONUSCO in the DRC, including, on an exceptional basis and without creating a precedent or any prejudice to the agreed principles of peacekeeping, its Intervention Brigade, within the authorized troop ceiling of 19,815 military personnel, 760 military observers and staff officers, 391 police personnel, 1050 personnel of formed police units, until 31 March 2015;
"2. Commends MONUSCO, including its Intervention Brigade, for the positive impact on peace and stability in eastern DRC and on the protection of civilians, fully supports the actions undertaken by the SRSG in the implementation of the mission's mandate, and encourages MONUSCO to maximise Force interoperability, flexibility and effectiveness in the implementation of the entirety of MONUSCO's mandate, in line with the Secretary-General's report (S/2014/157), bearing in mind the safety and security of all military contingents, police officers, military observers, and especially unarmed observers;
"3. Notes the need for a clear exit strategy, including for the Intervention brigade, and decides that future reconfigurations of MONUSCO and its mandate should be determined on the basis of the evolution of the situation on the ground and, in the context of implementation by the Government of the DRC and all other signatories of the PSC Framework, progress towards the following objectives, in line with the three priorities of Protection of civilians, stabilisation and support to the implementation of the PSC framework, as set out in the mission concept:
(a) Reduction of the threat posed by Congolese and foreign armed groups, violence against civilians, including sexual and gender-based violence and violence against children to a level that can be effectively managed by the Congolese justice and security institutions;
(b) Stabilization through the establishment of functional, professional, and accountable state institutions, including security institutions, in conflict-affected areas, and through strengthened democratic practices that reduces the risk of instability, including adequate political space, promotion and protection of human rights and a credible electoral process;
"4. Authorizes MONUSCO, in pursuit of the objectives described in paragraph 3 above, to take all necessary measures to perform the following tasks;
(a) Protection of civilians
(i) Ensure, within its area of operations, effective protection of civilians under threat of physical violence, including through active patrolling, paying particular attention to civilians gathered in displaced and refugee camps, humanitarian personnel and human rights defenders, in the context of violence emerging from any of the parties engaged in the conflict, and mitigate the risk to civilians before, during and after any military operation;
(ii) Ensure the protection of United Nations personnel, facilities, installations and equipment and the security and freedom of movement of United Nations and associated personnel;
(iii)Work with the Government of the DRC to identify threats to civilians and implement existing prevention and response plans and strengthen civil-military cooperation, including joint-planning, to ensure the protection of civilians from abuses and violations of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law, including all forms of sexual and gender-based violence and violations and abuses committed against children, and requests MONUSCO to ensure that child protection and gender concerns are integrated into all operations and strategic aspects of MONUSCO's work and accelerate the implementation of monitoring, analysis and reporting arrangements on conflict-related sexual violence and the swift deployment of Women Protection Advisers as called for in resolution 1960 (2010) and 2106 (2013), in order to seek commitments on the prevention and response to conflict-related sexual violence;
(b) Neutralizing armed groups through the Intervention brigade
"In support of the authorities of the DRC, on the basis of information collation and analysis, and taking full account of the need to protect civilians and mitigate risk before, during and after any military operation, carry out targeted offensive operations through the Intervention Brigade, either unilaterally or jointly with the FARDC, in a robust, highly mobile and versatile manner and in strict compliance with international law, including international humanitarian law and with the human rights due diligence policy on UN-support to non-UN forces (HRDDP), in cooperation with the whole of MONUSCO, prevent the expansion of all armed groups, neutralize these groups, and disarm them in order to contribute to the objective of reducing the threat posed by armed groups to state authority and civilian security in eastern DRC and to make space for stabilization activities;
(c) Monitoring the implementation of the arms embargo
"Monitor the implementation of the arms embargo as described in paragraph 1 of resolution 2136 (2014) in cooperation with the Group of Experts established by resolution 1533 (2004), and in particular observe and report on flows of military personnel, arms or related materiel across the eastern border of the DRC, including by using, as specified in the letter of the Council from 22 January 2013 (S/2013/44), surveillance capabilities provided by unmanned aerial systems, seize, collect and dispose of arms or related materials brought into the DRC in violation of the measures imposed by paragraph 1 of resolution 2136 (2014), and share relevant information with the Group of Experts;
(d) Provision of support to national and international judicial processes
"Support and work with the Government of the DRC to arrest and bring to justice those responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity in the country, including through cooperation with States of the region and the ICC;
"5. Authorizes MONUSCO, in support of the Congolese authorities and their efforts to deliver the reforms called by the PSC Framework and stabilisation in eastern DRC, to contribute to the following tasks, in coordination with the UNCT and other actors, including through the SRSG's good offices;
(a) Encourage and accelerate national ownership of Security Sector Reform (SSR) by the DRC authorities, including through the urgent finalisation and implementation of a national strategy for the establishment of effective, inclusive and accountable security and justice institutions by the DRC and play a leading role in coordinating the support for SSR provided by international and bilateral partners and the UN system;
(b) Promote peace consolidation and inclusive and transparent political dialogue among all Congolese stakeholders with a view to furthering reconciliation and democratization and encourage the organization of credible and transparent elections in line with the electoral cycle and the constitution;
(c) Encourage the consolidation of an effective national civilian structure to control key mining activities and to manage in an equitable manner the extraction and trade of natural resources in eastern DRC;
(d) Monitor, report and follow-up on human rights violations and abuses, including in the context of elections, and support the UN system in-country to ensure that any support provided by the United Nations shall be consistent with international humanitarian law and human rights law and refugee law as applicable;
(e) Provide good offices, advice and support to the Government of the DRC to enable the development and finalisation of a clear and comprehensive SSR implementation roadmap including benchmarks and timelines to establish effective and accountable security institutions, including vetting mechanisms;
(f) Provide good offices, advice and support to the Government of the DRC, in compliance with the HRDDP, for a reform of the army, including, as a first step, the establishment of a vetted, well-trained and adequately equipped "Rapid Reaction Force" within the FARDC which should form the nucleus for a professional, accountable, well-sustained and effective national defence force, and support, when appropriate and in coordination with international partners, the training of the "Rapid Reaction Force" which should, in the frame of the benchmarks and timelines set by the SSR roadmap, develop the capacity to assume as soon as possible security responsibilities from the Intervention Brigade of MONUSCO;
(g) Provide good offices, advice and support to the Government of the DRC for the design and implementation of DDR and DDRRR plans for foreign and Congolese combatants not suspected of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity or gross violations of human rights, aimed at integration into a peaceful civilian life contributing to stable communities in eastern DRC, while paying specific attention to the needs of children formerly associated with armed forces and groups;
(h) Provide good offices, advice and support to the Government of the DRC, in close cooperation with other international partners, to build on the Government's STAREC and revised ISSSS to support the establishment of a minimum level of sustainable state authority and control in conflict-affected areas in eastern DRC, including through area-based efforts to improve security, state authority and enable the commencement of sustainable socio-economic recovery;
(i) Provide good offices, advice and support to the Government of the DRC for the reform of the police, including by contributing, in compliance with the HRDDP, to the provision of training to battalions of the Congolese National Police (PNC);
(j) Provide good offices, advice and support to the Government of the DRC for the development and the implementation, in accordance with the Congolese strategy for justice reform, of a multi-year joint United Nations justice support programme in order to develop independent criminal justice institutions and processes, the police, the judiciary and prisons in conflict-affected areas;
(k) Provide good offices, advice and support to the Government of the DRC to promote human rights and to fight impunity, including through the implementation of the Government's "zero tolerance policy" with respect to discipline and human rights and international humanitarian law violations, committed by elements of the security sector;
(l) Continue to collaborate with the Government of the DRC in the swift and vigorous implementation of the action plan to prevent and end the recruitment and use of children and sexual violence against children by FARDC, and continue dialogue with all listed parties to obtain further commitments and work towards the development and implementation of time bound action plans to prevent and end the recruitment and use of children in violation of applicable international law and other violations of international humanitarian law;
"6. Reiterates that multi-dimensional peacekeeping requires a comprehensive approach, and requests MONUSCO's military and civilian components to focus on a coherent division of labour in accordance with their respective comparative advantages and available capacities;
"OP6bis. Stresses that integrated action on the ground by security and development actors requires coordination with national authorities in order to stabilize and improve the security situation and assist in restoration of State authority, and underlines the importance of integrated efforts among all United Nations entities in the field to promote coherence in the United Nations' work in conflict and post-conflict situations
Transfer of Responsibilities
"7. Requests that the Secretary-General continue to report on the current division of labour between MONUSCO and the UNCT on tasks shared by the Mission, the UNCT and the Government of the DRC and on the roadmap on the transfer of responsibilities to other actors, primarily the government of DRC, but also the UNCT and donors, in order to streamline the tasks assigned to MONUSCO, and expresses its intention to keep the mandate of MONUSCO under review on the basis of this reporting;
"8. Calls upon MONUSCO to continue to work with the UNCT and the Congolese authorities towards the adoption and implementation of the Peace Consolidation Programme covering provinces not affected by the conflict, and requests MONUSCO, where appropriate, to continue transferring tasks to the UNCT and the Congolese authorities in those provinces;
"9. Urges the international community and donors to support MONUSCO and the UNCT and calls upon the Government of the DRC and neighbouring States to remain engaged in the process of transfer of responsibilities;
"10. Calls on the Government of the DRC and its national partners to ensure a transparent and credible electoral process, in fulfilment of their primary responsibility to create propitious conditions for the forthcoming elections, and urges the Government as well as all relevant parties to ensure an environment conducive to a free, fair, credible, inclusive, transparent, peaceful and timely electoral process, which includes free and constructive political debate, freedom of expression, freedom of assembly, equitable access to media including State media, safety and freedom of movement for all candidates, as well as for election observers and witnesses, journalists, human rights defenders and actors from civil society including women;
"11. Calls on the Government of the DRC to adopt without delay the electoral cycle roadmap and budget, and, upon notification to the Security Council by the Secretary-General of their adoption, authorizes MONUSCO to provide logistical support, as appropriate and in coordination with Congolese authorities and the UNCT, to facilitate the electoral cycle, and decides that this support will be continually assessed and reviewed according to the progress made by the Congolese authorities in the steering of the electoral process, in accordance with the criteria set out in paragraph 16 of resolution 2053 (2012);
"12. Reiterates the importance of implementing the PSC Framework to the achievement of long term stability of eastern DRC and the region;
"13. Urges all signatory States of the PSC Framework to continue to fully and promptly implement their commitments in good faith;
"14. Calls on the government of DRC, which has the primary responsibility for safeguarding its sovereignty and territorial integrity, to make further meaningful progress in implementing its commitments under the PSC Framework, as well as the other signatories of the PSC Framework;
"15. Calls on the Special Envoy for the Great Lakes Region, in coordination with and with the appropriate support from the Special Representative for the DRC, to continue to lead, coordinate and assess the implementation of the national and regional commitments under the PSC framework and, building on the PSC Framework, to encourage a high level regional political dialogue between key signatories to address the underlying root causes of the conflict, noting the initial dialogue between key signatories already underway under the leadership of Angola as Chair of the ICGLR and encouraging the Special Envoy to continue to engage with this process;
"16. Strongly condemns all armed groups operating in the region and their violations of international humanitarian law as well as other applicable international law, and abuses of human rights including attacks on the civilian population, MONUSCO peacekeepers and humanitarian actors, summary executions, sexual and gender based violence and large scale recruitment and use of children, and reiterates that those responsible will be held accountable;
"17. Demands that the FDLR, the ADF, the LRA, the Bakata-Katanga and various Mayi Mayi groups cease immediately all forms of violence and other destabilizing activities and that their members immediately and permanently disband, lay down their arms and demobilize children from their ranks;
"18. Expressing concern that the FDLR, as well as other armed groups, continue to have freedom of movement in the DRC, noting with deep concern reports indicating FARDC collaboration with the FDLR at a local level and welcoming in this regard the plans by the FARDC, supported by MONUSCO, to neutralize the FDLR, and stressing the need to put such plans into sustained action;
"19. Demands that the Government of the DRC, per its commitments in the Nairobi Declarations of 12 December 2013, take immediate steps to implement its DDR programme, in coordination with the United Nations, international organizations and neighbouring countries where former M23 combatants have found refuge, requests, in this respect, and in accordance with the Nairobi declarations and in line with commitments under the PSC Framework agreement, the United Nations and international organizations to work together with neighbouring states to urgently address the situation of former M23 combatants located in their territories, and stresses the importance of ensuring that all provisions of the signed documents are implemented swiftly and in good faith and, in this regard, that the M23 does not regroup and resume military activities, in line with the Nairobi declarations and relevant Security Council resolutions;
"20. Calls on the government of the DRC to urgently put in place and implement comprehensive DDR and DDRRR Plans to be able to effectively deal with former combatants;
"21. Notes that former M23 combatants, including individuals designated by the Security Council, fled from the DRC into Rwanda and Uganda, especially following the defeat of M23 in DRC, encourages the Governments of Rwanda and Uganda, with the assistance of the United Nations and relevant international organizations, to continue to ensure that these combatants are permanently demobilized, that Congolese combatants are returned to the DRC to complete a DDR process, as appropriate, and are dealt with according to relevant international law, with special attention to children and women among them, and recalls Member States' obligations under the PSC Framework and the sanctions regime as renewed by resolution 2136 (2014);
"22. Reiterates its support to the Expanded Joint Verification Mechanism (EJVM) as a regional confidence-building mechanism, and welcomes the decision of the ICGLR to grant permanent representation of MONUSCO in this mechanism;
"23. Urges the Government of the DRC to arrest and hold accountable those responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity in the country, and stresses the importance to this end of both regional cooperation and cooperation with the ICC;
"24. Calls upon the Congolese authorities to ensure the prosecution of those responsible for the grave human rights violations and abuses committed in the context of the 28 November 2011 elections;
"25. Encourages the Government of the DRC to continue to build on its cooperation with the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflicts and the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict and to vigorously implement, with the support of MONUSCO as appropriate, the action plan to prevent and end the recruitment and use of children and sexual violence by the FARDC, and encourages President Kabila to swiftly appoint the proposed Presidential Adviser on Sexual Violence and the Recruitment of Children;
"26. Requests MONUSCO to take fully into account gender considerations as a cross cutting issue throughout its mandate and to assist the Government of the DRC in ensuring the participation, involvement and representation of women at all levels, including in stabilisation activities, security sector reform and disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processes, as well as in the national political dialogue and electoral processes, through, inter alia, the provision of gender advisers, and further requests enhanced reporting by MONUSCO to the Council on this issue;
"27. Requests MONUSCO to take fully into account child protection as a cross cutting issue throughout its mandate and to assist the Government of the DRC in ensuring that the protection of children's rights is taken into account, inter alia, in DDR processes and in security sector reform in order to end and prevent violations and abuses against children;
"28. Calls upon all actors to strengthen their efforts to combat impunity for conflict-related sexual violence, to provide all necessary services to survivors, and to ensure the equal and full inclusion of women in the PSC Framework and at all stages of conflict resolution, reconstruction and the promotion of peace including through taking account of the call of the 11 July 2013 Bujumbura Declaration for ensuring that benchmarks, indicators and follow-up measures of the plan of implementation for the PSC Framework are gender-sensitive;
"29. Calls on MONUSCO to coordinate strategies with other UN missions in the region for enhanced information-sharing in light of the attacks by the LRA, and reiterates support to the respective initiatives taken by the UN and the AU to facilitate regional action against the LRA, consistent with paragraph 4 (a);
"30. Encourages MONUSCO to enhance its interaction with the civilian population to raise awareness and understanding about its mandate and activities through a comprehensive public outreach programme, to identify potential threats against the civilian population and to collect reliable information on violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights perpetrated against civilians;
"31. Requests the Secretary-General to take the necessary measures to ensure full compliance of MONUSCO with the United Nations zero-tolerance policy on sexual exploitation and abuses and to keep the Council informed if cases of such conduct occur;
"32. Requests MONUSCO to ensure that any support provided to national security forces is in strict compliance with the United Nations human rights due diligence policy, urges the United Nations system in DRC to adopt a join and uniform approach regarding HRDDP implementation;
"33. Demands that all parties cooperate fully with the operations of MONUSCO and allow and facilitate the full, safe, immediate and unhindered access for United Nations and associated personnel in carrying out their mandate and the timely delivery of humanitarian assistance to populations in need, in particular to internally displaced persons, throughout the territory of the DRC, respecting the United Nations guiding principles of humanitarian assistance and relevant provisions of international law;
"34. Calls on all Member States to generously contribute to the UN humanitarian appeal for the DRC to help ensure that UN humanitarian agencies and other international organizations are fully funded and able to address the protection and assistance needs of internally displaced people, survivors of sexual violence, and other vulnerable communities;
"35. Calls on Member states to pledge and provide the remaining force enablers, in particular military air assets, required for the Mission, and recalls the importance of close consultations with troop- and police- contributing countries;
"36. Notes that it is important that all MONUSCO contingents, including the contingents of the Intervention Brigade, are properly prepared and effectively equipped to be able to carry out their respective tasks;
"37. Expresses its full support to the UN Group of Experts established by resolution 1533 (2004) and calls for enhanced cooperation between all States, particularly those in the region, MONUSCO and the Group of Experts, encourages all parties and all States to ensure cooperation with the Group of Experts by individuals and entities within their jurisdiction or under their control and reiterates its demand that all parties and all States ensure the safety of its members and its support staff, and unhindered and immediate access, in particular to persons, documents and sites the Group of Experts deems relevant to the execution of its mandate;
"38. Requests that the Secretary-General conduct a thorough Strategic Review of MONUSCO and the wider UN presence in DRC in order to provide recommendations on MONUSCO's future objectives, activities, exit strategy and effective deployment of resources, to the Security Council by 30 December 2014, bearing in mind the need to continue to increase the effectiveness of the mission;
Reports by the Secretary-General
"39. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Council every three months on:
(i) the situation on the ground, including sexual violence and the impact of conflict on women and children;
(ii) progress made by the DRC in the implementation of its commitments under the PSC Framework, including through the establishment and implementation of a national security sector reform roadmap and the creation of a Congolese "Rapid Reaction Force", and on the implementation of the DDR and DDRRR plans;
(iii)the implementation by MONUSCO of its mandate, including the activities of the Intervention brigade, its reconfiguration to conduct the tasks set out above and the ongoing transfer of responsibilities to other actors;
(iv) the risks and their implications for the safety and the security for the UN personnel and facilities as a result of the possible military operations as well as measures taken to strengthen their security and mitigate risks;
"40. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Security Council every six months, in coordination with his Special Envoy for the Great Lakes region and his Special Representative for the DRC on the implementation of the commitments under the PSC Framework;
"41. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter."