Lagos is the least liveable city in the world after Damascus, a city in war-torn Syria, an annual survey has shown.
According to the Economist Intelligence Unit's 2017 Global Liveability Report, a decade of declines in the ease of living has now stabilised, although a number of cities have suffered from the "spreading perceived threat of terrorism".
"Of the more poorly scoring cities, 12 continue to occupy the very bottom tier of liveability, where ratings fall below 50% and most aspects of living are severely restricted," the report said.
"Continued threat from groups such as Boko Haram acts as a constraint to improving stability in Lagos, Nigeria's largest city."
The reports showed that rankings were calculated using a number of factors including crime, healthcare, climate, corruption and censorship.
The report also said Melbourne and Vienna were the most liveable cities in the world.
The five most improved cities over the past five years are Tehran, Dubai, Abidjan, Harare and Colombo; while the biggest decliners are Kiev, Damascus, Tripoli, Detroit and Moscow.
Apart from Lagos and Damascus, other least liveable cities in the world include Kiev, Douala, Harare, Karachi, Algiers, Port Moresby, Dhaka, and Tripoli.