The US has accused China and Russia of using "opaque" and "corrupt" practices to expand their influence in Africa. US National Security Adviser John Bolton said the two nations were "deliberately and aggressively" attempting to gain an economic advantage over the US on the continent.
He said the Trump administration's new strategy for Africa would focus on trade and countering terrorism.
He warned the US would no longer fund "unproductive" peacekeeping efforts.
"Under our new approach, every decision we make, every policy we pursue, and every dollar of aid we spend will further US priorities in the region," he said in a speech at the Heritage Foundation in Washington.
He accused China of using "bribes, opaque agreements and the strategic use of debt to hold states in Africa captive to Beijing's wishes and demands".