Friday 22 April 2016 - 07:12 PM
On 25 April 1982, the Egyptian flag was raised over the Sinai Peninsula after its complete restoration from the Israeli occupation. This was the last scene in a long series of Egyptian-Israeli conflict that ended with the complete restoration of the Egyptian lands thanks for the great Egyptian military and political efforts.
The armed fighting
The first steps on the path of liberation started just a few days after the 1967 defeat, till the spark of the October war began. The fighting front witnessed fierce battles, the results of which were a shock to the Israeli military establishment. In 1973 war was waged and the Egyptian armed forces successfully passed the Suez Canal and the Barlev and had full sovereignty over the Suez Canal, part of the lands in the Sinai Peninsula and navigation in the Suez Canal returned in June 1975. The Great War of Liberation also came with direct results at the global and local levels, including:
-The change of military standards in the world, east and west.
-Changing the military strategies in the world, and influencing the future of many weapons and equipment
-The return of confidence to the Egyptian and Arab fighter
-Arab unity became in its finest form.
-The fall of the Israeli myth
In addition, the October War paved the way for the Camp David Accord between Egypt and Israel, which was endorsed in September 1978 following the historic Sadat initiative in November 1977 and his visit to Jerusalem.
On the sixteenth day of the October War, the second stage of the liberation of the land began through the political negotiations. Resolution 338 was issued to stop all military operations starting October 22, 1973, after the intervention of the United States and the Security Council. Egypt accepted and implemented it on the evening of the decision. However, the Israeli forces' violation of the resolution led to the issuance of another resolution by the Security Council on October 23 obliging all parties to the cease-fire, which Israel has committed to and agreed upon, entering into military talks that resulted in fighting stop at 28 October 1973 with the arrival of the international emergency forces to Sinai.
The negotiations of the Kilometer 101 (October and November 1973) paved the way for political talks to reach a permanent settlement in the Middle East. On November 11, 1973, an agreement was signed guaranteeing a ceasefire and daily supplies to the city of Suez. This agreement was an important starting stage in establishing a lasting and just peace in the Middle East.
In January 1974, the first disengagement agreement was signed between Egypt and Israel, defining the line to be withdrawn by the Israeli forces on an area of 30 kilometers east of the Canal and defining the separation zone between the forces where the international emergency forces will be stationed. In September 1975, Egypt restored lines of about 4,500 kilometers from the land of Sinai. One of the most important aspects of the agreement is that the conflict in the Middle East will not be resolved by military force but by peaceful means.
President Anwar Sadat's visit to Jerusalem (November 1977)
President Anwar Sadat announced in a statement to the People's Assembly that he was ready to go to Israel, and in November 1977 he had already visited Israel and delivered a speech to the Israeli Knesset and he presented his initiative.
The initiative then put forward five specific foundations on which peace is based
- End the Israeli occupation of the Arab territories occupied in 1967.
-The realization of the fundamental rights of the Palestinian people and their right to self-determination, including their right to establish their own State.
-The right of all States of the region to live in peace within their safe and secure borders.
-All countries in the region are committed to managing their relations in accordance with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, in particular the non-use of force and the peaceful settlement of disputes.
-Ending the state of war in the region.
The Camp David Conference (September 18, 1978)
On September 5, 1978, Egypt and Israel agreed to the US proposal to hold a tripartite conference at Camp David, United States of America. The agreement was announced on September 17 of the same year and the signing of the Camp David accord at the White House took place on 18 September 1978. The agreement contained two important documents to achieve a comprehensive settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict.
Document I: Framework for Peace in the Middle East
The Charter of the United Nations and other international laws provide acceptable levels of relations between all States that help the achievement of a peaceful relationships in accordance with the spirit of Article 2 of the Charter and allow the conduct of future negotiations between Israel and any neighboring State willing to negotiate peace and security and this is essential for the implementation of all the principles of Security Council resolutions 242 and 338.
Document II : Framework of Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel
Egypt and Israel signed the Peace Treaty on 26 March 1979, convinced of the importance of establishing a just, comprehensive and lasting peace in the Middle East in accordance with Security Council resolutions 242 and 238 and reaffirming their commitment to the agreed upon framework of peace in the Middle East At Camp David.
The Peace Treaty of 26 March 1979
Egypt and Israel signed the peace treaty, which called for an end to the war between the two sides, settling peace, the withdrawal of Israeli armed forces and civilians from Sinai beyond the international border between Egypt and mandated Palestine and Egypt getting full sovereignty over Sinai.
Return of Sinai
The Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel led to full Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula and the return of Egyptian sovereignty over all Egyptian territory. A timetable for the phased withdrawal from Sinai was set as follows:
On 26 May, 1979: Arish / Ras Mohammed line and start implementing the peace agreement.
On 26 July 1979: The second phase of the Israeli withdrawal from Sinai (an area of 6 thousand square kilometers) from Abu Zneiba to Abu Khirbet.
On November 19, 1979: The South Sinai Governorate took over leadership and responsibilities after liberation.
On 19 November 1979: The Israeli withdrawal from St. Catherine and the Valley of the Tur considering that day the national day of the governorate of South Sinai.
On April 25, 1982: The Egyptian flag was raised on the eastern border of Egypt on the city of Rafah in northern Sinai and Sharm el-Sheikh in southern Sinai to complete the full Israeli withdrawal from Sinai after a 15-year occupation and declaring this day an Egyptian national day in commemoration of the liberation of every inch of Sinai except Taba. The diplomatic battle to liberate this precious spot took seven years of intense Egyptian diplomatic efforts.
During the final Israeli withdrawal from Sinai in 1982, the conflict between Egypt and Israel erupted around Taba. Egypt presented its position clearly: territorial compromise should be resolved in accordance with Article VII of the Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty
On January 13, 1986: Israel announced its acceptance of the arbitration. The talks began between the two sides and ended with an arbitration agreement signed
on September 11, 1986. The terms of the arbitration were determined and the court's task was to determine the location of the disputed points and borders.
On 30 September 1988: The International Arbitral Tribunal at the session held in the Geneva Parliament declared that Taba is Egyptian land.
On March 19, 1989: The flag of Egypt was raised on Egyptian Taba.
Sinai across History.docx
South Sinai Governorate
North Sinai Governorate