Uganda: Air Pollution in Kampala Is Killing Us

opinion

In the wee hours of June 19, 2019, I, together with work colleagues, left Kampala for Kikuube district.

After Kikuube, we went to Hoima district to participate in the public hearings on the Kingfisher oil project's Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) study report. The public hearings were organised by the Petroleum Authority of Uganda (PAU) in partnership with National Environment Management Authority (NEMA).

The hearings, which were held in Kikuube and Hoima districts, were aimed at enabling NEMA ascertain that the information contained in the ESIA was accurate in addition to enabling the public submit their views.

The public's views would assist NEMA in making a decision as to whether to issue an environmental certificate for the Kingfisher oil project, which is located on the shores of Lake Albert, or not.

I had a bit of a cold when we left. During our stay in the districts, the cold disappeared. When I returned to Kampala, however, the cold returned with a vengeance. We first had to drop my work colleagues to Buwaate, which is near Kira. When we were in Kungu, I got a painful wound in my nose. The cold, which must have been soothed by the fresher air in Kikuube and Hoima district, had returned!

By the time we reached Ntinda on the way to my home, my chest had tightened and I was in pain. A mixture of the cold and pollution from car fumes had sparked off an allergic episode.

AIR POLLUTION AND ALLERGIC DISORDERS

How are the public hearings, my allergies and oil related? Because there is a link between oil production, oil consumption and respiratory illnesses.

The incidence of allergies and asthma in developing countries including Uganda is on the rise. A 2018 study, Asthma and Allergic Disorders in Uganda: A Population-Based Study Across Urban and Rural Settings, showed that there was a "a high prevalence of allergic disorders in Uganda". The researchers concluded that the disorders were expected to increase.

Why?

Well, the study, which was conducted by Johns Hopkins University in collaboration with Makerere University Lung Institute, and ACCESS Uganda, urbanisation was identified as the "primary driver of asthma and the strongest risk factor for any allergic illness [including allergic rhinitis and eczma]".

The study examined 1,308 adults over the age of 35 and it found that while 9.8 per cent of the sampled urban population had asthma, only 4.3 per cent of the rural population did. A total of 3,416 participants over the age of 12 were surveyed and the study found that urbanisation, among other factors was associated with asthma.

URBANISATION

Why is urbanisation associated with allergic disorders such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczma? Pollution from vehicle fumes, among other sources, has been blamed. vehicle fumes contain carbonmonoxide, carbondioxide, nitrogendioxide, sulphurdioxide, ozone, benzene and other compounds.

The above compounds irritate the lining of the nose, throat and lungs, inflame the lining of the airways, reduce lung capacity and cause discomfort in breathing, among others. These fumes are generated from the burning of diesel and petrol. Burning of other fossil fuels results in the release of the above compounds as well.

OIL AND ENVIRONMENT

In the ESIA report and during the Kingfisher ESIA public hearings, CNOOC (U) Ltd, the project owners, revealed that roads are going to be upgraded, the populations of Hoima and Kikuube will increase, air pollution from vehicle fumes and emergency flaring (burning of fossil fuels) are anticipated.

Urbanisation, increased motorisation and combustion of fossil fuels are among the risk factors for increased allergic disorders. The above factors are going to be at play in the Bunyoro oil region where the Kingfisher and Tilenga oil projects are located.

It is noteworthy that in oil-producing countries, adult onset asthma and other respiratory diseases have been reported. Potentially dangerous pollutants have also been found near oil and gas installations.

The population and especially communities near oil production facilities in Uganda are at risk of inhaling pollutants from oil and gas production activities. This increases their risk to respiratory diseases and allergic disorders.

The communities are largely poor and would have to rely on Uganda's public health system to be treated. What can be done? Countries such as the UK, the Netherlands and others are increasingly promoting a clean energy system that promotes environmental conservation, health, gender equity and others.

Government should promote investment in clean energy, over oil. Government should look to promote the health and wellbeing of its people. We should promote life and sustainable economic activities such as tourism, over oil monies.

The writer is the senior communications officer of Africa Institute for Energy Governance.

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