Tanzania: Hygiene and Protecting Children Against Preventable Diseases

PEOPLE should take a holistic approach in eliminating preventable diseases that proper growth of children. People should also get correct information on efforts taken by the government in controlling the diseases.

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Effective control can be achieved when selected public health approaches are combined and delivered locally. More people especially children aged five years and below, die every day in thousands as a result of contracting preventable diseases.

Washing hands with soap before eating and after using the toilet can prevent many diseases which are spread through bacteria absorbed into the body by putting dirty hands into the mouth. Bacteria from filth, standing water and human excreta are especially dangerous thus improving access to sanitation is a critical step towards reducing the impact of these diseases.

It also helps physical environment that enhance safety, dignity and self-esteem.

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Weak and sick people cannot

contribute positively in the nation's development. About 500 people die every year in Tanzania due to diseases which can be prevented in safe sanitation.

As of November last year about 27,554 people were reported with diarrhea infections where 432 of them died.

Having access to clean water and

practicing effective hygiene regularly are both necessary to stay healthy. Improving sanitation facilities and promoting hygiene in schools benefits both learning and the health of children.

Child-friendly schools that offer private and separate toilets for boys and girls, as well as facilities for hand washing with soap, are better equipped to attract and retain students, especially girls.

Where such facilities are not available, girls are often withdrawn from school when they reach puberty. In health-care facilities, safe disposal of human waste of patients, staff and visitors is an essential environmental health measure. This intervention can contribute to the reduction of transmission of health-care associated infections which affect 5 per cent to 30 per cent of patients.

Unsanitary conditions also invite dysentery and typhoid which are surefooted killers. It important on improving sanitation, toilets and hand washing facilities at household and public places particularly in schools and health facilities. is

Worms make pupils to fall sick often... as a result they would not be able to attend classes and concentrate in the class rooms. If they missed classes it comes in the way of pursuing their education.

The tablet removed the growth hook worm, whip worm and round worm in the body. The growth of those worms in the body of children resulted in anaemia. of

The worms cause malnutrition among children and curtailed growth of children. The worms especially suck vitamin A in pancreas. The symptoms of prevalence of worms in the body were severe stomach ache, lack of appetite, diarrhoea, loss of energy and tiredness.

There are chances that if there are very few worms, children may not have these symptoms. Worms infect more one third of the world's population, with the most intense infections in children and the poor. than

Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), a diverse group of communicable diseases that prevail in tropical and subtropical conditions in 149 countries affect more than one billion people and cost developing economies billions of dollars every year.

People living in poverty, without adequate sanitation and in close contact with infectious vectors and domestic animals and livestock are those worst affected.

Kagera Regional Commissioner (RC),

Brig Gen Marco Gaguti explained that Soil Transmitted Helminthis (STH) prevalence rate was high adding that the government would distribute Albendazole anti-worm tablets for children aged between five years and 15 years free of cost.

NTDs Regional Co-ordinator, Gerase Ishengoma, revealed that during 2017/18 about 547,008 children were administered with Albendazone tablets while 545,520 children were administered Praziquantel tablets implying 90 per cent achievement.

In Biharamulo District about 60,229 children got Albendazone tablets and 59,419 children were administered Praziquantel tablets. In Bukoba District about 76,631 children got Albendazone tablets while 75,825 got Praziquatel tabs.

In the poorest countries, children are likely to be infected from the time they stop

breast-feeding and to be continually infected and re-infected for the rest of their lives.

School-age children typically have the

highest intensity of worm infection of any age group.

In addition, the most cost-effective way to deliver deworming pills regularly to children is through schools because schools offer a readily available, extensive and sustained infrastructure with a skilled workforce that is in close contact with the community.

All the common worm infections in

school-age children can be treated effectively with two single-dose pills: one for all the common intestinal worms (hookworms, roundworms and whipworms) and the other for schistosomiasis (bilharzia). The treatment is safe, even when given to uninfected children.

The most commonly used drugs for the treatment of common intestinal worms are Albendazole (400 mg) or Mebendazole (500 mg).

In May 2013, the 66th World Health Assembly resolved to intensify and integrate measures against Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) and to plan investments to improve the health and social well-being of affected populations.

Twenty neglected tropical diseases were prioritized by the World Health Organization (WHO). Chromoblastomycosis and other deep mycoses, scabies and other ectoparasites and snakebite envenoming were added to the list in 2017.

These diseases are common in 149 countries, affecting more than 1.4 billion people, including more than 500 million

children and costing developing economies billions of dollars every year. They resulted in 142,000 deaths in 2013-down from 204,000 deaths in 1990.

Of these 20, two were targeted for

eradication of (dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease) by 2015 and yaws by 2020) and four for elimination (blinding trachoma, human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy and lymphatic filariasis by 2020).

Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a diverse group of tropical infections which are especially common in low-income populations in developing regions of Africa, Asia and the Americas. They are caused by a variety of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminths.

These diseases are contrasted with the big three diseases (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria), which generally receive greater treatment and research funding.

In sub-Saharan Africa, the effect of these diseases as a group is comparable to malaria and tuberculosis. NTD co-infection can also make HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis more deadly.

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