Sudanese German Relations--------(Part Two)

Chapter One


Sudan - Basic Information:

Sudan is officially known as the Republic of Sudan. It is located in northeastern Africa, bordered to the east by Ethiopia and Eritrea, to the north by Egypt and Libya, to the west by Chad and the Central African Republic, and to the south by South Sudan.

The most important cities:

Khartoum, Omdurman, Port Sudan, Halfa, Kassala, Obied, Atbara, Al Fashir, Nyala and Madani


The Nile River divides Sudan's lands into two halves : the eastern and western parts, and the capital, Khartoum, is located at the confluence of the two Niles, the White and the Blue Nile, main tributaries of the river Nile. Sudan is surrounded by the Nile Valley basin and occupies an area of 1,865,813 square kilometers. It is the third largest country in Africa behind Algeria and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the third in the Arab world following Algeria and Saudi Arabia, and the sixteenth in the world.


The population of 40 million people. The population embraces Arabs, Africans, Nubians, Bejas, and dozens of other ethnic groups.


Livestock and husbandry are the main sources of livelihood in Sudan. More than 61% of the working population, according to the 1990's census were engaged in agricultural activities. Sudan enjoys huge water resources, arable lands of an approximately one third of its total area of 1,886,068 square kilometers, (728,215 square miles) making it true to say that Sudan is the future food basket of the globe. The area of arable land in 1998 was estimated at 16,900,000 hectares (41.8 million acres) of which about 1.9 million hectares (4.7 million acres) of irrigated land, especially on the banks of the Nile and other rivers in the northern regions of the country. Cotton is a major export crop. Sudan is the largest sesame producing country and the first undisputed producer of Gum Arabic.

Despite the natural wealth and great resources in Sudan, the country's economy suffers from stagnant crises, which worsened the living conditions of the citizen. Sudan has 102 million head of livestock, feeding on natural pastures, with an estimated area of 118 million acres, in addition to an annual average rainfall of more than four hundred billion cubic meters. However, these resources have not been exploited for 63 years, after Sudan gained independence in 1956.

Minerals in Sudan

Gold: Sudan knew gold in ancient times and called the northern part of Nubia, Nubia means the land of gold

Silver: Silver metal is produced in Sudan in some mines in the Red Sea Stat. The potential reserve is estimated at (1500) tons of silver.

Chrome: Excavation in Sudan started commercially since the 1970s, and the reserve is estimated at about two million tons, with a concentration rate of 48-60% in the case of high-quality vines. The chromium stock in Sudan is currently estimated at about 50,000 tons, of which about one million tons are in the mountains of Angassana in the Blue Nile State. The most important vine production areas are the Kurmuk - Qaissan region, where there are economic quantities of chromium within the oviolite rocks.

Copper: There are areas in western Sudan, the mountains of the Red Sea, where copper sulfate has been found in Abu Samar area and the reserve percentage is increasing in depth.

Iron: The area of the iron mineral in Sudan lies between latitudes 22 ° 22' - 4'21 north and longitudes 45'31 ° 15-31 'east. Iron is found Abu Hamad in the southeast and Al-Bajrawyah and Shendi in the south of the state of the Nile River and in western Sudan in Darfur, Karnawi area north of Kutum as well Burberry Mountains, West Darfur


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