President Idriss Deby Itno has ruled Chad since toppling the dictator Hissene Habre in 1990. Critics say his cunning and ruthless approach has helped him become one of the world's longest-serving leaders.
At least 7.3 million people are expected to vote in Chad's presidential election on Sunday.
Ten candidates appear on the ballot paper. However, three of them have withdrawn from the race, citing intimidation and an "already rigged election" in favor of President Marshal Idriss Deby Itno.
Deby came to power in the oil-rich African nation in 1990 through a military coup that removed Hissene Habre from office. He has maintained his grip on power since then, winning all five times he ran for office.
"Most of the young people amongst you were not born when I came to power," Deby told cheering supporters at a campaign rally in the capital, N'Djamena, on Tuesday.
Critics describe Deby as an autocrat. Many have accused him of turning Chad into his backyard.
Deby has ruled over a profoundly fragmented nation, with multiple ethnic groups and clans vying for power.
Unlike his predecessors, Deby has remained in power for over 30 years, thanks mainly to his political cunning and prowess as a tactician.
Last year Deby, an experienced military man, was awarded the rank of marshal, the highest accolade.
Deby's critics accuse him of using oil revenues to build patronage networks and a crackdown on dissent.
"Frequent divisions of political actors have also allowed Deby to perpetuate his reign in the division, intoxication and manipulation," the opposition politician Yaya Dillo Djerou told DW.
Djerou accused Deby of using state revenues to pay off his confidants, and using the anti-militant war in the Sahel to get support from Western countries.
"All this has enabled Deby to quell all dissenting voices, including assassinations of credible actors," Djerou said.
On February 28, 2021, Djerou's home in N'Djamena was raided by government forces, and five of his relatives, including his mother and son, were killed. He had planned on challenging Deby in Sunday's vote. Now he is in hiding.
Clamping down on dissent
Chad's security forces have "ruthlessly cracked down on protesters and the political opposition in the lead-up to the Sunday presidential election," according to Human Rights Watch.
"As many Chadians are bravely taking to the streets to call for change and respect for their basic rights peacefully, Chad's authorities have responded by crushing dissent and hope of a fair or credible election," Ida Sawyer, deputy Africa director at the rights organization, said in a statement.
Alain Didah Kemba, national coordinator for the NGO Citoyez le Temps, has been organizing the protests in N'Djamena to demand that the authorities respect civil liberties.
Kemba was arrested four times in as many years and jailed for staging what the government called "illegal assembly." "We are dealing with a corrupt regime, and that has shown terrible governance," Kemba told DW.
Several hundred young people and opposition supporters are behind bars, according to the opposition and human rights groups.
Deby says he still has a lot to offer to Chad. He's vowed to stabilize nation and build the economy.
Justifying Deby's decades in power, presidential spokesman Brah Mahamat told DW that his boss is a visionary man who has turned around the country's misfortune and built the education sector.
"President Idriss Deby Itno has covered 30 years of experience, 30 years of sacrifice for his country," Mahamat said. "The president has exploited Chad's oil to enable the country to build new infrastructure," he added.
This weekend's election will see seven people running for the presidency, but government critics say real opposition members have been barred from running for office.
The opposition candidate Succes Masra's chances of facing Deby were dashed after a 2018 revision to the constitution to prevent candidates younger than 40 from running for office. Masra is only 38.
"He doesn't want me to run for office," Masra told DW. "That's why he changed the minimum age required."
Supporters such as Desire Mbairamadji still see Deby as capable of moving the country forward.
"He is the only Chadian president who has built universities in the provinces," Mbairamadji said, adding that Deby is the man who can tackle terrorthreats faced by the country and the Sahel region.
Chadians impoverished amid oil wealth
The nation produces 1.5 billion barrels of oil annually, making it one of Africa's largest oil reserve holders. The oil revenues contribute 60% to Chad's national budget.
Chad's population is one of the world's poorest, and, according to the World Bank, about 40% of children younger than 5 are at risk of stunted growth.
Young people say they can't find jobs. Adissou Dibam has a master's degree in political science, but he could not get a job in the past 10 years. "This about death and life. We can't live without work," Dibam said.
Sunday's vote is expected to go ahead without the participation of key opposition figures. And the incumbent president is set to extend his 30-year grip on power.