The ANC's sub-Soviet political model has passed political authority exclusively to ANC party headquarters as the real government, unaccountable to voters. Not surprisingly, in the post-Soviet era, this passed licence to the ANC political elite after its return to capitalist South Africa for extreme corruption. Who was to stop them?
Inziles or exiles? This is certainly a major theme in the history of South Africa and the ANC of the post-Sharpeville period, which comes to mind when reading Carien du Plessis' acute investigation, "The aftermath: ANC set to take a broom to its own house when party leaders meet on Monday" (Daily Maverick, 21 July 2021).
The basic reality is clear: when we talk about "exiles" in relation to the ANC, we are talking primarily of a political culture dominated by the South African Communist Party. It's important to examine the differences here.
When the ANC was founded in 1912 -- as far as I know, the first such organisation in Africa -- its founding ethos was Christian, anti-tribalist (in that sense, national) and looked directly to the Westminster and US electoral systems as the model for a future democratic South African Parliament. Basically, the founders of the ANC wanted...