Africa's 'New Mosaic' of Political Systems

The advance and retreat of democracy in Africa since the end of the Cold War have resulted in a new mosaic of political systems, writes Richard Joseph. Popular uprisings can still sweep away autocracies but democracy movements can also be thwarted by determined autocrats. In a second article, on growth and governance, he notes that the positive growth of the past two decades has been seen under a diverse array of political systems.

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Some African leaders with 20 years in power, from top left to bottom right: Omar al-Bashir, Sudan; Idress Deby Itno, Chad; Yoweri Museveni, Uganda; King Mswati III, Swaziland; Denis Sassou Nguesso, Republic of the Congo; Paul Biya, Cameroon; Robert Mugabe, Zimbabwe; Jose Eduardo Dos Santos, Angola; Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasongo, Equatorial Guinea.


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