9 July 2009

Africa: What the G8 Leaders Say On Africa

document

L'Aquila, Italy — Leaders of the world's eight major industrialized countries meeting in L'Aquila, Italy, have devoted about one-third of their declaration to African issues. The verbatim text of the relevant section follows. The full declaration is available from the AllAfrica resources page.

Development and Africa: Promoting Sustainable and Inclusive Globalization

Responsible Leadership for Sustainable Development

94. In an increasingly interdependent world, all countries share common interest and responsibility in addressing the challenges of growth and sustainable development. Over recent years we have put these challenges at the forefront of our Summits, launching ambitious initiatives cantered around the internationally agreed development goals, focusing on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and achieving important results.

95. At a time of global economic crisis we are determined to assist developing countries in coping with the impact of the crisis, which is having a disproportionate impact on the vulnerable in the poorest countries, and to work with them to achieve sustainable development, food security, good governance, peace and security, in order to promote access to economic and social opportunities for all and improve human security.

96. Economic development and environmental protection are mutually reinforcing. Lasting progress in eradicating poverty can only be achieved if economic growth and climate change, through an ambitious agreement at Copenhagen, are addressed jointly. We are committed to enhancing our collaboration with partner countries in integrating low-carbon growth strategies and effective adaptation measures into their national development plans.

97. We are determined to exercise and share leadership to promote development through an inclusive approach to globalization. We call upon major economies, developing countries, international institutions and other global actors to work together with us to identify and implement collective and individual responses and produce concrete results in the fight against poverty.

98. To improve transparency and effectiveness we decide to strengthen our accountability with respect to G8 individual and collective commitments with regard to development and development-related goals. We have asked our experts to provide a preliminary report, attached as an annex, reviewing our achievements up to now. Furthermore, we have tasked a senior level working group to devise, in cooperation with relevant international organizations, a broader, comprehensive and consistent methodology for reporting with a focus on our activities in development and development-related areas and with attention to results. A report will be delivered in 2010 at the Muskoka Summit in Canada. We also ask for an international assessment, in 2010, on what is needed in order to achieve the MDGs.

A renewed commitment to development: assisting developing countries in coping with the crisis

99. Growth and employment in developing countries are seriously threatened, jeopardizing progress achieved towards internationally agreed development goals, including the MDGs. The global economic slowdown has significantly reduced export revenues, private capital flows and remittances to developing countries. Declining government revenues and lower availability of external financing have also forced many governments in developing countries to consider cuts in vital investments and social safety net spending. This combination of external and fiscal pressure could generate macroeconomic and social instability with lasting effects on present and future generations. We must act now to prevent the economic crisis from turning into a deeper social crisis.

We note the potential of an effective UN Global Impact and Vulnerability Alert System (GIVAS). We have therefore resolved to act with major emerging economies, developing countries and other relevant players to create the conditions for bolstering world trade and investment, placing world growth on a more solid path and minimizing the impact of the crisis on vulnerable populations.

100. We reconfirm our resolve to implement the Monterrey Consensus and the Doha Declaration on Financing for Development. In particular, despite the severe impact of the crisis on our economies, we reiterate the importance of fulfilling our commitments to increase aid made at Gleneagles, and reaffirmed at Heiligendamm and Toyako. For Africa, this will include increasing, together with other donors ODA by US$ 25 billion a year by 2010, compared to 2004. The OECD-DAC estimated that the combined commitments of G8 and other donors would increase overall ODA by around $50 billion a year by 2010 compared to 2004. We will continue to provide debt relief according to the Enhanced HIPC initiative, the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative and the Paris Club's Evian Approach.

101. At the London Summit we have agreed a substantial increase of resources available through the International Financial Institutions (IFIs) for crisis support and sustaining growth. As G8 we remain firmly committed to the London decisions and their thorough and timely implementation. In addition, we will consider ways to improve developing country governments and private sectors' access to credit, explore enhanced approaches to sovereign debt restructuring based on existing frameworks and principles and encourage lenders and borrowers to pursue sustainable lending practices. We encourage non-DAC countries with high foreign exchange reserves to enhance development-friendly investment. We ask the International Financial Institutions to work with partner countries to strengthen capacities for debt management and improve monitoring instruments for promoting long-term debt sustainability.

102. The financial crisis makes it doubly important that we improve the effectiveness of our aid. We are firmly committed to implement the Paris Declaration and the Accra Agenda for Action (AAA), to ensure development effectiveness. Building on the results of the 2008 OECD Survey, we will accelerate implementation of our aid effectiveness commitments, with a strong focus on in-country implementation, to be reviewed at the 2011 Fourth High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness. We stand ready to work with partner countries, non-DAC donors and providers of South-South cooperation to improve development results.

103. We encourage developing countries to continue implementing strategies that support inclusive and equitable growth and to further their efforts to provide regulatory frameworks which favour the development of sound and inclusive financial markets, private sector investment and employment. We encourage and support social protection mechanisms and safety nets to address the vulnerability of those who are hardest hit by the crisis. Where appropriate, we may use a counter- cyclical approach that allows for giving short term support to the most vulnerable people. We will also consider whether it is necessary to review priorities in our country aid programs, in the light of the current crisis.

104. We commend the IFIs swift response to the crisis and urge them to continue to coordinate their actions and expand financial support for developing countries, also considering accelerated disbursement of already approved funds and review of existing instruments. Therefore, we welcome the World Bank's establishment of the Vulnerability Framework.

105. We welcome the report of our Africa Personal Representatives on measures to strengthen the G8-Africa partnership and support the reform process of the Africa Partnership Forum.

106. We welcome the productive work of the Heiligendamm Process Working Group on Development and Africa, which has contributed to build a common understanding of development principles and we look forward to further explore and implement common effective approaches that will best benefit the needs of developing countries.

Building on Monterrey and Doha: a 'whole of country' approach to development.

107. National governments have the primary responsibility for ensuring development, by engaging with their parliaments, local authorities, civil society organizations and citizens in shaping appropriate policies, mobilizing domestic resources and promoting their efficient and sustainable use. Yet a renewed commitment to fight poverty requires increasing efforts by public and private actors, from developed countries, emerging economies and developing countries. We will continue to support partner countries' efforts to increase domestic revenues through modernized tax and customs regulations, improved revenue collection capacities and effective fight against tax evasion, illegal financial flows and corruption. We will enhance cooperation on financial transparency and tax information exchange.

108. Building on the Monterrey Consensus, as reaffirmed in the Doha Conference on Financing for Development, we will promote a comprehensive, "whole of country" approach to development. We will ensure stronger synergies across all relevant policies and foster the conditions for all actors in our country system - central and local governments, private sector, philanthropy and civil society - to contribute effectively to partner countries' development. We will work with partner countries to maximize the impact of investment, trade, debt relief and sustainable debt financing, microfinance, remittances, domestic resources of partner countries, as well as development assistance, with a view to diversifying the mix of available financial resources and gradually reducing aid-dependency. We call on the international community to consider, where appropriate, broadening innovative financing initiatives on a voluntary basis and note the work of the Leading Group on Innovative Financing for Development. We will also explore the potential of new innovative financing mechanisms, including new forms of voluntary contributions by citizens and corporations.

109. Building on this "whole of country" approach, we will explore the feasibility and the relevance of a new assessment tool designed to fully comprehend the various contributions to the sustainable development of partner countries. Such a tool, taking into account a wide range of factors such as government aid and non-aid policies, private sector and civil society efforts, could also provide operational guidance on how to foster the contributions of our country systems to development and maximize their impact. In this respect, it could also constitute the basis for enhanced dialogue between G8 and partner countries on how to improve respective policies. We ask the OECD to elaborate further on this issue and report to our next Summit in 2010.

Strengthening G8 and global initiatives to achieve the MDGs

110. We are aware of our responsibility in pushing forward the achievement of the MDGs, particularly in Africa. The interrelated nature of these Goals calls for comprehensive, coordinated and complementary development policies. These policies will be inspired by the principles of sustainability, inclusiveness and gender equality as well as by the five pillars of the Paris Declaration: ownership, alignment, harmonization, results-based management and accountability. We will promote gender equality as a key issue for aid effectiveness and to reduce poverty. We will frame our initiatives within partnerships involving all relevant stakeholders at global, regional and national level. In line with the AAA, where possible we will build upon existing partnerships and ensure that these are effective and inclusive, promote better coordination and division of labour, reduce fragmentation of aid, be aligned to partner countries' priorities and strengthen these countries' systems, with particular attention to specific objectives and instruments for fragile and post-conflict environments.

Promoting Global Food Security

111. Agriculture and food security should be placed at the core of the international agenda. We welcome the Final Declaration of the G8 Ministers of Agriculture who recently met in Treviso, and commit to continue working with partner countries and international and regional organizations to foster the conditions for ensuring sustainable access to sufficient, affordable and safe food to everyone. The economic crisis dramatically changed the scenario we faced when we last convened in Toyako. Although global commodity and food prices significantly decreased in many regions, they remain high compared with historical levels. As a consequence of spikes in food prices, the number of people suffering from hunger increased by 100 million up to 1 billion and could significantly worsen as the global economic crisis unfolds. Lower incomes and higher unemployment reduce the purchasing power of the poor, worsening their access to food. The climate change impact on agriculture and decreasing availability of water could aggravate the already critical situation of food security, requiring broader adaptation and mitigation efforts.

112. In Toyako we agreed to undertake all possible measures to ensure global food security, highlighting that the G8 had committed over US$ 10 billion since January 2008 for short, medium and long-term purposes, to support food aid, nutrition interventions, social protection activities and agricultural output increase. The monitoring report by our experts confirms that from January 2008 to July 2009 US$ 13 billion have been disbursed and that substantial additional commitments have been undertaken since the Toyako Summit.

113. With a view to ensuring a more food secure world, we commit to:

a) stimulate sustainable growth of world food production, by promoting increased investment in agriculture, including through development assistance, and with particular attention to small-hold farmers; promote well-functioning and transparent international, national and local markets as a means to reduce the volatility of prices and combat speculation; work with governments and regional organizations to strengthen national agricultural research systems; increase investment and access to scientific knowledge and technology, also by strengthening the role of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR); encourage appropriate land and natural resource management, the protection of biodiversity and the adaptation to climate change.

b) noting a growing trend of international agricultural investment, including land leasing and purchases in developing countries, we will work with partner countries and international organizations to develop a joint proposal on principles and best practices for international agricultural investment.

c) foster a more efficient and coherent international agricultural and food security architecture by: advancing the reforms of the FAO, the Committee on World Food Security and other specialized agencies and their cooperation at global, regional and country level; enhancing food aid effectiveness; continuing to explore various options on a coordinated approach to stock management; advancing trade negotiations to achieve a balanced, comprehensive and ambitious conclusion of the Doha Round.

d) support country-led and regional processes, such as the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP), to promote sustainable agriculture, the development of local markets and rural non-farm economies, as well as to strengthen early warning systems, social protection mechanisms and safety nets for vulnerable population groups.

114. We will keep supporting an integrated approach to achieve global food security, respond to emergencies and prevent future crises, building on the UN Comprehensive Framework for Action (CFA). Pursuant to our Toyako commitments, we welcome the progress achieved so far, in close cooperation with the UN High Level Task Force on Global Food Security Crisis (HLTF), towards establishing the Global Partnership for Agriculture and Food Security (GPAFS). We also welcome the results of the recent meetings of our Agriculture Ministers and Development Ministers on this process. We call upon all stakeholders to join the Partnership and we pledge to advance, by the end of 2009, in the implementation of the Global Partnership for Agriculture and Food Security.

115. In line with our comprehensive approach to development and building on existing UN and other international and regional institutions, the GPAFS should address food security by promoting sustainable agricultural development, taking account of climate impacts, and building resilient societies. The GPAFS should generate political momentum for a comprehensive, inclusive, action-oriented and effective response to food insecurity at national, regional and global levels. It should enable all relevant stakeholders (e.g. consumers and producers, smallholders and women farmers, civil society, private sector and academia) to share best practices, coordinate actions and improve resource management.

Promoting sustainable access to Water and Sanitation

116. Many developing countries, particularly in Africa and Asia-Pacific, are still far from achieving sustainable access to water and sanitation and integrated water resource management, indispensable for sustainable development. We are determined to generate political momentum at international, regional and national levels for the internationally agreed goals, including the MDGs and their targets on safe water and basic sanitation. Climate change will have significant impacts on water resources management and service provision. We will accordingly strengthen our efforts to support improved water management to build resilience and drive adaptation, and against desertification, support disaster risk reduction and enhance science-based information provision, data collection and analysis.

117. We welcome the G8 water experts' report on the implementation of the Evian Water Action Plan. Despite clear advances, much needs to be done. While recognizing that water and sanitation challenges require leadership, investments, and action by governments, civil society and private sector in developing countries, we will strengthen our support to partners on the basis of their commitments, to improve resource management, governance, and sustainable financing.

118. Together with African partners we will launch a strengthened Africa-G8 water and sanitation partnership based on mutual accountability and shared responsibility, to implement respective commitments on water and sanitation and respond to the reciprocal call for improving joint work made at the 2008 G8 and AU Summits. Within the framework of this partnership, building on successful initiatives, we will support African partners to implement their commitments to: prioritize water and sanitation within national development plans; develop resource mobilisation strategies, including national budget allocations and sustainable cost recovery policies; involve all relevant stakeholders and promote programs to strengthen the capacity of local actors and the monitoring of progress. G8 efforts will include: supporting country-level coordination processes led by national governments towards aid effectiveness; strengthening the capacity of local actors and institutions, including regional organizations such as the AU and AMCOW; reinforcing complementarities and synergies with existing multilateral and regional initiatives. We will continue working with African partners at all levels, with a view to achieve tangible progress in the advancement of the partnership by the end of 2009.

119. For the Asia-Pacific region, we will continue implementing the Evian Plan of Action with a particular focus on integrated water resource management and work on key regional issues such as climate change adaptation and transboundary river basin management.

Promoting Global Health

120. Since the Okinawa and Genoa Summits, with the launching of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, we have played a critical role in supporting progress towards health-related MDGs. We have made progress towards universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support; Malaria; Tuberculosis; Polio and child mortality rates. Despite these efforts, progress towards health-related MDGs, especially for child mortality and maternal health is still off-track particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, the health situation is further aggravated by the burden of non-communicable diseases.

121. In the current global financial crisis we reaffirm our commitment to address the health needs of the most vulnerable, especially women and children. In this regard, we encourage the WHO, World Bank and other partners to monitor the impact of the crisis on health and advise on actions to be taken at country and global level. In order to advance the goal of universal access to health services, especially primary health care, it is essential to strengthen health systems through health workforce improvements, encompassing both health professionals and community health workers, information and health financing systems including social health protection, paying particular attention to the most vulnerable. We reaffirm our commitment to address the scarcity of health workers in developing countries, especially in Africa and we note the 2008 Kampala Declaration and the Agenda for Global Actions launched by the Global Health Workforce Alliance. We encourage the WHO to develop by 2010 the Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel. We will also begin to address substantial gaps in knowledge about how to manage, organize and deliver health care in Sub-Saharan Africa through a variety of strategies, including by developing networks of researchers and by working with our African partners to establish a consortium of interdisciplinary centres of health innovation. As an enabling first step in developing the consortium, we will convene a planning meeting in late 2009 with African partners to establish a roadmap. We will work with partner countries and international institutions to promote well-functioning information systems. We also encourage multilateral institutions - including WHO, World Bank, GFATM, GAVI, UNITAID and UN Organizations - to continue to support health system strengthening. We encourage them to further improve coordination with plans and processes in partner countries and international health partnerships.

122. We promote a comprehensive and integrated approach to the achievement of the health-related MDGs, also maximizing synergies between global health initiatives and health systems. We will accelerate progress on combating child mortality, including through intensifying support for immunization and micronutrient supplementation, and on maternal health, including through sexual and reproductive health care and services and voluntary family planning . We warmly support building a global consensus on maternal, newborn and child health as a way to accelerate progress on the Millennium Development Goals for both maternal and child health, through (i) political and community leadership and engagement; (ii) a quality package of evidence-based interventions through effective health systems; (iii) the removal of barriers to access for all women and children, free at the point of use where countries chose to provide it; (iv) skilled health workers; (v) accountability for results. We encourage the work of the WHO, WB, UNICEF and UNFPA are doing to renew international efforts on maternal and child health. We will implement further efforts towards universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support by 2010, with particular focus on prevention and integration of services for HIV/TB.

We will combine this with actions to: combat TB and Malaria; address the spread of Neglected Tropical Diseases and work towards completing the task of polio eradication; improve monitoring of emerging infectious diseases. In this regard, we stress the importance of addressing gender inequality. We commend the strong African leadership in addressing health challenges and welcome the launch of the African Leaders Malaria Alliance on the occasion of the 64th UNGA in September 2009.

123. We also recognize the need to strengthen the link between health sector and other policies by promoting the strategic approach of "health as an outcome of all policies". We aim at addressing the key determinants of health through mutually reinforcing policies across sectors such as poverty reduction, food and nutrition, water supply and sanitation, education, gender equality, employment, housing, justice, environment and science and technology. We commit to counter any form of stigma, discrimination and human rights violation and to promote the rights of persons with disabilities and the elimination of travel restrictions on people living with HIV/AIDS.

124. We invite partner countries to increase and effectively use their domestic financing for health in line with the principles of the Rome, Paris and Accra Declarations. We recognize the critical role and contribution of the Global Fund, WHO and the World Bank. We encourage them to assist, together with other relevant actors in the design of comprehensive, robust and well-costed country-led strategies and plans, building on experience such as the International Health Partnership (IHP+) and other initiatives including Providing for Health. We acknowledge the work of the Leading Group on Innovative Financing for Development and the report of the High Level Taskforce on Innovative International Financing for Health Systems, which present a set of options from which countries and stakeholders can choose on a voluntary basis to mobilize resources to strengthen health systems. A number of G8 countries are considering and taking forward specific Leading Group and Task Force recommendations.

125. We reaffirm our existing commitments, including the US$ 60 billion investment to fight infectious diseases and strengthen health system by 2012. Building on the decisions taken at St. Petersburg, Heiligendamm and Toyako, we have established a follow-up mechanism to monitor the progress of health commitments. We welcome the report submitted by our experts, highlighting progress and proposing further actions, and we commit to further improvements.

Advancing towards Education for All

126. Investing in education and skills development is crucial for a sustainable recovery from the current economic crisis and for long term development. We reaffirm the right to education for all. We favour an integrated approach to education systems, prioritizing access to and completion of quality primary education and also addressing post-primary education, vocational training and skills development, and adult literacy, according to partner countries' specific needs. We support efforts to include educational strategies within broader development policies, in the spirit of the "Acting together" Oslo Declaration by emphasizing the principles of aid effectiveness and division of labour.

127. We remain committed to the goals of Education for All (EFA) and we welcome the progress made so far, but we recognize that decisive action is still needed. We reaffirm that no country seriously committed to EFA will be thwarted in the achievement of this goal by lack of resources.

We continue to paying special attention to countries affected by conflict or crises, girls, children in rural areas, children with disabilities, working children and those living or affected by HIV/AIDS.

In this perspective, governments should enhance the quality of education also through the recruitment, training, retention and better management of qualified teachers. We welcome major global campaigns to promote support for education, through international events, such as the FIFA World Cup in 2010. We welcome the creation of an international Task Force on "Teachers for EFA", aiming to address the "teacher gap".

128. We reiterate our support to the Education for All - Fast Track Initiative (EFA- FTI) as a good practice for aid effectiveness. We will continue to facilitate the implementation, within 2009, of the EFA/FTI's reform process with specific attention on the most effective governance structures and financing mechanisms. This process will be based on the preliminary findings of the ongoing FTI evaluation. We, along with other donors, are committed to a unified approach, mobilizing predictable bilateral and multilateral resources in order to fulfil the financial shortfall estimated by the FTI at $1.2 billion over the coming 18 months, and to close gaps in education data, policy and capacity to accelerate action on EFA. We welcome the report submitted by our experts concerning progress on our support to EFA-FTI which shows how education contributes to the whole MDG Agenda and is a key factor in poverty reduction. We welcome the holding of the next FTI meetings in Italy in autumn 2009.

Strengthening capacities and coordination mechanisms for peace and security in Africa

129. Peace and security are prerequisites for sustainable development.

Post-conflict developing countries face particular challenges in reaching the MDGs and need special assistance. We have assessed progress in the implementation of our existing commitments to strengthen peacekeeping and peace-building capacity in Africa. We will reinforce G8 programs, taking action to:

a) enhance coordination for peace support operations, recognizing the leading role of the UN, and in particular the UN Security Council. We will increase efforts to: coordinate material and logistical assistance, training, and planning activities; assess with partner countries the causes of conflict to produce clear and achievable mandates for peace operations and improve peace-building efforts; integrate civilian, police and military components. We will strengthen the role of the Africa Clearing House by examining with the AU how a dedicated website and database on peace and security activities might be established with G8 support to provide for continuous information exchange and ensure better coordination, coherence and synergy amongst our initiatives. We task our experts to elaborate further specific proposals by the next Summit.

b) provide assistance, including financial, for African-led peace support operations, and work towards flexible and predictable funding.

We commit to help strengthen the African Union and Regional Economic Communities' peacekeeping capabilities, including by assisting in the full operationalisation of the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA) including the African Standby Force (ASF).

c) improve capacity building efforts and rapid deployment of capabilities, focusing on: civilian and police expertise, including justice mediation and reconciliation; humanitarian assistance; recovery and reconstruction. We will support training of trainers activities and centres of excellence in Africa, and assist in building international networks of training centres to achieve common quality standards. In the context of the APSA we have assessed the different initiatives which have been launched together with African partners, including the training priorities for the ASF. We commit to address those priorities, including on civilian and police components, complementing ongoing donor initiatives.

d) support maritime security capacity development in Africa. In this respect, we welcome and support the growing interest of the African Union and its member States in maritime security, which is a prerequisite for development and must be strengthened to improve Africa's trade and investment climate.

e) improve aid effectiveness in conflict and fragile environments. We are strongly committed to implement the Accra Agenda for Action provisions on adapting aid policies in fragile situations. Reaffirming the OECD-DAC Principles for Good International Engagement in Fragile States and Situations, we emphasize the need for assistance based on the principles of coherence, coordination and complementarity, as reflected in the "3C Roadmap" adopted at the 2009 Geneva Conference. We welcome the Conference's operational recommendations to implement these principles through whole of system and whole of government approaches to fragile and conflict situations.

f) enhance work with the UN System, International Financial Institutions and other donors, to build partnerships on peace and security. We welcome the efforts of the UN-AU High Level Panel in producing a report on the financing of AU-led peace support operations and commit to working with the UN and AU to address the issues raised, emphasizing the importance of regional dimensions, ownership and institutions for peace and security in Africa. We call upon major emerging economies and other actors such as the UN Peacebuilding Commission to develop a constructive dialogue to tackle together conflict and post-conflict situations.

g) encourage partner countries to take an integrated approach in developing their security systems, based on the principles of rule of law, good governance and human rights, and the strengthening of governmental capacity to improve the provision of safety, security and justice.

Strengthening governance and the private sector for economic growth

Promoting effective governance

130. Democratic, effective and participatory governance is crucial for economic growth and poverty eradication. Transparent and accountable policy frameworks, the responsible use of political power and the rule of law are essential determinants of sustainable development. We welcome and support the strong commitment of the African Union to improve governance, including through the NEPAD African Peer Review Mechanism.

We encourage timely implementation of its country Plans of action.

131. We remain committed to support capacity enhancement programs for good governance, accountability and transparency measures in order to foster democratic ownership of development agendas. In particular:

a) Recalling the Okinawa Charter on the Global Information Society and the Genoa G8 Action Plan for Digital Divide, we support further initiatives to narrow the digital gap to underpin institution-building, the modernization of public services and the strengthening of legislative and democratic processes.

b) Recalling our Action Plan for Good Financial Governance in Africa, we welcome the launch in 2009 of the African Tax Administration Forum (ATAF) as an important initiative to improve capacities and mobilize and efficiently use domestic resources. We ask the African Development Bank, in cooperation with the OECD, to systematically monitor the interaction between aid flows, growth and domestic tax capacity development in Africa and to report back to our next Summit. We will also support capacity building for improved financial and legal systems, to provide for the necessary tax reforms and for better international cooperation in the fight against tax evasion. In this respect we encourage the OECD and other relevant organizations to expand their work on tax havens on issues relevant to developing countries.

c) Recognizing the key role of the extractive industries for the development and stability of many partner countries, we commend progress made by the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) and other initiatives such as the Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (FLEG) process for timber and the Kimberley certification process for rough diamonds. We reaffirm our commitment and support for the full implementation of these initiatives that can play a key role in increasing public revenues, and reducing corruption, conflict and violence fuelled by revenues from natural resources. We recommend the participation of further countries and companies in these initiatives.

We strongly encourage EITI candidate countries to complete their validation process within the agreed timeframe. In addition, we encourage all firms operating in the extractive sector and in weak governance zones to adopt international corporate social responsibility guidelines, such as the OECD Guidelines on Multinational Enterprises. In this respect, and with reference to the Great Lakes Region, we welcome the efforts of the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region to tackle illegal exploitation of natural resources and encourage the OECD, the United Nations and the Global Compact to work with the Conference and engage with key stakeholders to further develop practical guidance for business operating in countries with weak governance.

d) Recalling our recognition in the AAA of the crucial role of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), we encourage governments to adopt legislation which is consistent with international laws and conventions, enabling civil society organizations, including the media, to exist and operate freely and effectively.

e) Given the importance of the fight against bribery and corruption for good governance, we urge all countries to adhere to the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC).

Strengthening the private sector

132. A healthy, vibrant and competitive private sector is crucial for promoting growth and poverty reduction. Sound macroeconomic and regulatory frameworks must be pursued, along with adequate infrastructure networks that can support regional integration. This is also the best incentive for attracting investment and strengthening trade. We commend the work of the Investment Climate Facility (ICF) for Africa as a model of African-led reform. We welcome progress made by the Infrastructure Consortium for Africa (ICA), the EU-Africa Infrastructure Trust Fund as well as bilateral financing initiatives. Functioning financial markets are a key to foster economic growth. We strongly encourage public-private partnerships and a wider use of risk-mitigation instruments that leverage resources toward improving access to credit in developing countries.

133. In line with our "whole of country" approach to development, and recalling the UN MDG Business Call to Action, we will favour the comprehensive engagement of our private sector and civil society in partnerships aimed at leveraging resources and expertise to strengthen productive and trade capacities in developing countries. Reaffirming our commitment to a swift, ambitious and balanced conclusion of the Doha Round and the importance of promoting meaningful market access, we note progress made towards achieving a collective effort on trade-related assistance of $4 billion annually by 2010. In this respect, we welcome focus on results and effectiveness of aid for trade initiatives addressing supply-side constraints, especially the least developed countries, and strengthening regional integration, and encourage our developing country partners to integrate trade into their national development strategies.

134. Given the development impact of remittance flows, we will facilitate a more efficient transfer and improved use of remittances and enhance cooperation between national and international organizations, in order to implement the recommendations of the 2007 Berlin G8 Conference and of the Global Remittances Working Group established in 2009 and coordinated by the World Bank. We will aim to make financial services more accessible to migrants and to those who receive remittances in the developing world. We will work to achieve in particular the objective of a reduction of the global average costs of transferring remittances from the present 10% to 5% in 5 years through enhanced information, transparency, competition and cooperation with partners, generating a significant net increase in income for migrants and their families in the developing world.

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